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Political Developments in the Early Republic

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1 Political Developments in the Early Republic
Chapter 11

2 I. Launching the New Government
First President April 30, 1789 – Washington takes oath of office BrainPOP Title Debate Argued over title Washington preferred “Mr. President” Setting Up the Executive Branch Department of State – to handle relations with other countries Department of War – to defend the nation Treasury Department – oversee nation’s finances Attorney General – president’s legal advisor Postmaster General – head postal system

3 II. Washington as President
Critical Problem National treasury was empty 1791 – Congress agreed to tax on whiskey and luxury goods Whiskey Rebellion Many complaints on whiskey tax Congress lowered in 1793 Rebels in Western PA tarred and feathered tax collectors a) Washington led 13,000 state militia troops to crush rebels French Revolution 1789 – French people rebelled against king 20,000 people killed (mostly nobility) BrainPOP

4 Whiskey Rebellion

5 II. Washington as President
Washington’s Farewell Address Agreed to 2nd term in 1792 Messages to the Nation Warned of problems with other countries Warned of loyalty to political parties

6 What could our nation learn from the words of our first president?
Analysis The words from Washington’s Farewell Address are just as important today as they were when he left office. What could our nation learn from the words of our first president?

7 III. Alexander Hamilton & the Federalist Party
Background Was born in the West Indies Was Washington’s personal assistant during war Married girl from political family which helped him into Congress View of Human Nature People were basically selfish and out for themselves Distrusted any system of government that gave too much power to the common people

8 III. Alexander Hamilton & the Federalist Party
Best Form of Government Believed that country should be ruled by “best people” – educated, wealthy Favored a strong national government Ideal Economy 1790 economy based on agriculture Hamilton presented Congress with plan to pay off war debts asap 1 – promised capital location to south if they supported Also asked Congress to establish a national bank (collect taxes, print paper money, loans)

9 III. Alexander Hamilton & the Federalist Party
Relations with Britain & France 1793 – war broke out between France and England a) Federalists sided with Britain

10 IV. Thomas Jefferson & the Republican Party
Background Born in Virginia and became tobacco planter (slave-owner) View of Human Nature 1. Informed citizens could make good decisions for themselves and their country Best Form of Government Favored democracy Best government was one that governed the least Constitution meant exactly what it said (no more or less) Favored strong state governments

11 IV. Thomas Jefferson & the Republican Party
Ideal Economy 1. Favored economy based on agriculture Relations with Britain & France Supported France French Representative to the US, Edmond Genet, attempted to convince Americans to join the French in war with Britain a) Ordered to leave the country after insulting President Washington

12 V. Presidency of John Adams
Election of 1796 Republicans backed Jefferson Federalists supported John Adams Adams elected by 3 votes, Jefferson VP Alien & Sedition Acts Alien Acts (3) Lengthened time it took for immigrant to become a citizen with right to vote from 5 to 14 years Allowed president to jail or deport aliens suspected of causing trouble Sedition Act – made encouraging rebellion against government a crime

13 V. Presidency of John Adams
Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions Set of statements opposing Alien & Sedition Act Virginia & Kentucky only 2 states who adopted resolutions New National Capital – federal government moved to city of Washington in District of Columbia

14 VI. Election of 1800 1800 Election The Campaign Divided Federalists
Republican leaders backed Jefferson with Aaron Burr as VP Federalists chose John Adams for reelection with Charles Pinckney as VP The Campaign Jefferson supported the Constitution and states’ rights, run a simple government Adams ran on his record of peace and prosperity Divided Federalists 1. Hamilton’s followers refuse to support Adams because of foreign policy disagreements

15 VII. Deadlock & a New Amendment
Election Results 1. All Republican electors voted for Jefferson and Burr resulting in a tie between them Breaking the Tie Sent to the House of Representatives where each state gets 1 vote – ended in another tie 6 days and 35 ballots later – Hamilton broke deadlock by asking his supporters to vote for Jefferson 1804 – 12th amendment added, calling for separate ballots for president and vice president

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