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World Regional Geography April 14, 2010 Reading: Marston Chapter 8 pages 378-391, 393-410 (East Asia) Chapter 1 pages 44-48 Goodes World Atlas pages 189-1999,

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Presentation on theme: "World Regional Geography April 14, 2010 Reading: Marston Chapter 8 pages 378-391, 393-410 (East Asia) Chapter 1 pages 44-48 Goodes World Atlas pages 189-1999,"— Presentation transcript:

1 World Regional Geography April 14, 2010 Reading: Marston Chapter 8 pages , (East Asia) Chapter 1 pages Goodes World Atlas pages , (East, Southeast, and South Asia) Mongolian Steppe

2 East Asia 1.Political Boundaries 2.History A.Dynasties & Empires B.Imperial Decline C.20 th Century Change D.Revolutionary China 3.Population Characteristics 4.Environmental History and Issues 5.Culture and Ethnicity 6.Economic Development A.Development Theory B.Rostows Stages of Development C.The Asian Tigers D.Japan E.China Pyongyang, North Korea

3 Political Boundaries

4 History Chinese Dynasties Imperial Japan Mongol Empire

5 History Inward looking societies Imperial decline 20 th century change Significantly different trajectories Japan: industrialization and expansion China: revolution and communism Korea: North/South division Mongolia: Soviet domination Taiwan: political uncertainty / development

6 Revolutionary China 1912 Qing Dynasty Falls Nationalist Party Long March Mao Zedong Organized rural peasants 1949 Communist control – Nationalist government flees to Taiwan Korean War China enters on behalf of North Korea The Great Leap Forward Large agricultural communes Crops determined by central planners Five Year Plan Attempt to industrialize rural areas Bad weather and poor planning lead to famine 1959 – 1962, 20 to 30 million starved

7 Revolutionary China The Cultural Revolution Attempt to reeducate Remove corrupt officials Millions displaced Mostly intellectuals From city to country 10s of thousands killed 1976 – Revolution Over Mao Zedong dies Gang of Four arrested 1989 Tiananmen Square The Four Modernizations Industry, agriculture, science and defense Deng Xiaoping Decentralization Market economy Private entrepreneurship Open-door policy Manufacturing grows by 15% per year Allows foreign investment Normalized trade relations

8 Modern Day East Asia Japan 2nd largest world economy Asian Tigers Hong Kong South Korea Taiwan China 3 rd largest economy Potential to be center of world economy Pacific Destiny Tapei, Taiwan

9 Geopolitical Hotspots North Korea Worlds 5 th largest standing army Nuclear capability? Taiwan Part of cold war politics Lost international status in 1971 China still views it as a wayward province Hurray for the glorious victory of Seon-gun politics! Seon-gun = military first

10 Central / Inner China North China Plain Sichuan Basin Japanese Pacific Corridor Population Density

11 Population Characteristics RegionPopulation(Millions) Birth Rate Death Rate Natural Increase (%) Net Migration Rate Projected Pop. Change (2050) East Asia 1, % RegionIMRTFR % Pop <15 % Pop >65 Life Expectancy MaleFemale East Asia Region HIV/AIDS % % Urban GNI PPP (US$) East Asia ,100 China accounts for the bulk of population Internal migration: rural-to-urban Very little emigration to East Asia Significant income variations

12 Environmental History & Issues North China Plain Forests cleared Water control Draining of marshes Irrigation Korea / Japan Terrain limits agricultural land Outer China / Mongolia Sparsely populated Limited human impact Air and Water pollution High coal usage Industrial waste Limited regulation

13 Culture & Ethnicity China Han Chinese: 92% 56 other ethnic groups Tibet Invaded by China in 1950 Ethnic Tibetans now a minority Tibetan Buddhism Xinjiang Majority Uighur population Muslim Independence movement repressed by China Taiwan Han Chinese: 98%

14 Culture & Ethnicity Homogeneity Japan: almost exclusively ethnic Japanese (98.5%). South Korea: only about 20,000 Chinese make up minority population. North Korea: very small Chinese population. Mongolia: 94.9% Mongol, 5% Turkic (Kazakh), less than 0.1% Chinese and Russian

15 Culture & Ethnicity Language China Mandarin (language of Imperial China), Cantonese 52 other languages Japan, Korea, Mongolia: dominated by national languages Religion Confucianism Daoism Buddhism Japan – Shinto and Buddhism

16 Economic Development Development Theory Core-oriented Attempt to replicate the prosperity of the core in the periphery by encouraging economic growth through industrialization and modernization. Two assumptions of the core The periphery should attempt to be like the core in its pathway to development. The economic problems of the periphery are due to poverty and backwardness. Modernization Theory Increase investment – increase industrialization Improve productivity and raise GDP Incomes increase, and thus consumption increases Rostows Stages of Development



19 Economic Development Dependency School of Development Emerged in reaction to modernization theory Periphery point-of-view The core-periphery relationship is responsible for the chronic state of under-development in the periphery. Economic exploitation Dependency of inputs from the core Development requires separation from the capitalist world-system and economic dependency. Opposite of neo-liberalism Latin America prior to the debt crisis How does East Asia fit?

20 Asia Section 4 The nations further benefited from their access to the major shipping routes of the Pacific Ocean. While Japan was building one of the worlds strongest economies in the years after World War II, other Asian nations were also making great economic gains. Because of economic successes, South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore became known as the Asian Tigers. Asian Rim entered 1960s as poor, undeveloped region Over next few decades, Asian Tiger economies performed spectacularly Growth higher than that of similar economies in Latin America, Africa Spectacular Growth The Asian Tigers Countries followed pattern similar to one used by postwar Japan Ample education, training for citizens; skilled workforce necessary for industrial expansion Also received U.S. economic aid Industrial Expansion

21 Asia Section 4 Manufacturing As in Japan, Asian Tigers focused on growth Growth came through exports of consumer goods, primarily to United States Low costs for labor, production, as well as loyal, dedicated workforce allowed manufacture of low-cost products that could sell in U.S.

22 Japans Industrial Revolution 1868 – Meiji Clan Capitalistic monopolies Improvements in Heavy industry Infrastructure Education Agriculture Silk exports Military aggression By 1920 Japan becomes a core nation

23 Postwar Japan Economic Miracle 10% growth yearly By 1963 – leading manufacturing nation Advantages High levels of personal savings New technologies Government support Social stability Cultural Support Keiretsu

24 China Enormous domestic market Protection of domestic producers Positive balance of trade Regional disparities East vs. West Urban vs. Rural Environmental issues

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