Presentation on theme: "Rebirth and Revolution: Nation- Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim 1945-2000."— Presentation transcript:
Rebirth and Revolution: Nation- Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim 1945-2000
Post-War Asia: Occupied Territory USA: Japan, Philippines, South Korea USSR: North Korea Guomindang: Taiwan France: Southeast Asia (Indo-China) Britain: Indian subcontinent
Japanese Recovery US occupation until 1952. Major Reforms –War crimes trials –Diet reestablished as supreme body –Emperor made figurehead –Women granted suffrage –Military disbanded: Article 9 –Unions allowed
The Japanese “Economic Miracle” Government planning along with capitalism. Emphasis on hard work, loyalty, and group responsibility for quality. Confucian values. Export of technology for resources.
Continuities in Japanese society Group over individual. Shame and honor. Women’s status not equal to men. Respect for government authority.
Asian Tigers of the Pacific Rim South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan (ROC). Followed similar economic models as Japan.
Cold War in Asia Korea North Korea: Led by Stalinist Kim Il-Sung. South Korea: Parliamentary capitalist democracy. North invades South in 1950. UN action. 1953 Armistice. South prosperous and global trader; North destitute and isolated.
Vietnam French control Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos) by the 1890s. French exploitation created strong resentment and famines. Western-educated elites fought French discrimination. Nationalist elites lead violent revolution. Comintern funded Communists (Viet Minh) led by Ho Chi Minh fought French and Japanese (WWII) imperialists.
After WWII, Communist controlled the North; French the South. UN partitioned Vietnam after French defeat. US supported non-communist dictatorship in South Vietnam, who worked to crush the Vietcong (Southern Communists). US sent troops to stop North from taking the South from 1964-1973. In 1975, the North captured the South after the US withdrew.
Vietnam Since 1975. Marxist-Leninist policies adopted. Opposition suppressed. Economic stagnation. “Boat People” escape. Communism spilled over into Cambodia with the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot. Privatization in the late 1980s has helped the economy.
Chinese Communist Revolution Mao Zedong and the Communists take power in 1949. –Cooperate with the Soviets until late 1950s. –5-year plans adopted. –Land redistributed. –Industrial collectives created. –Heavy industry emphasized. –Rejects Lenin’s elitist revolution for a revolution of the peasants. –1957 purge after call for openness.
The Great Leap Forward 1958 Focused on agriculture. Created enormous collective farms. Peasant resistance led to famine and death of 20 million (hungry ghosts). Mao lost post as Chairman.
The Cultural Revolution 1965 Mao uses China’s youth to secure his power and remove all traces of the traditional order. The Cult of Mao and the Little Red Book. The Red Guard and attacks on elite. Schools and businesses closed. Families broken up. Red Guard gets out of control.
Women in Communist China Legal equality established. Arranged marriages less common. Worked in industry. Received an education. China is still male dominated despite gains.
The Struggle for Control after Mao’s Death in 1976 Gang of Four (led by Jiang Qing) seize power. Deng Xiaoping and reformers imprison Gang of Four.
Deng initiates the Four Modernizations. Builds up industry, education system, scientific research and defense. Allows elements of capitalism: economic boom. Allows foreign investment and western influence. Institutes One-Child Policy. Does not allow political or religious freedom: Tiananmen Square.