2 The People’s Republic of China The establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 began a new period in Chinese History.Communism had risen to power during the 1930’s and 1940’s by appealing to a large part of the population.Mao Zedong emerged as the leader of the Communists in the 1930’s.In 1934, Mao Zedong and 100,000 of his followers were fighting against the Guomindang forces (Chinese non-communists), where he lead a retreat known as the Long March.After traveling 6,000 miles, Mao set up a base in northern China, with about 20,000 survivors of the march.In the years that followed, the Communists, the Guomindang, and Japanese invaders battled for control over China.Mao’s communists forces were victorious
3 Reasons for Communist Success Mao won the support of the huge peasant population of China by promising to give land to peasants.Mao won the support of women by rejecting the inequalities of traditional Confucian society.Mao’s army made good use of the hit-and-run guerilla warfareMany people opposed the Chinese Nationalist government, which was in power before, because they claimed the government was corrupt.
4 Communism Under Mao Zedong The Communists set up the People’s Republic of China in 1949.They wanted to transform China from an agricultural society into a modern industrial nationUnder Communism, literacy increased, old landlord and business classes were eliminated, and rural Chinese were provided with healthcare.However, Mao set up a one-party dictatorship that denied people basic rights and freedoms.
5 Changing Role of WomenTraditionally, in China, women were seen as inferior to men.The only role for women according to the Five Key Relationships of Confucianism was that of a wife.As a wife, a women was seen as inferior to their husband.Under the previous Nationalist government, women continued to have no rights.In Communist China, however, women gained some rights; women gained equality under the law and were expected to get jobs and work alongside men on farms and in factories.Women’s role in Communist society improved compared to how they were treated by previous governments.
6 The Great Leap ForwardIn 1958, Mao launched a program called the Great Leap Forward.He called on people to increase agricultural and industrial output.To make farms more productive, he created communes, groups of people who live and work together and hold property in common.Communes had production quotas, which were set amounts of agricultural or industrial output that they were to produce.The Great Leap Forward ultimately failed, due to poorly made goods produced by the communes.Bad weather negatively impacted agricultural output causing famine.
7 Cultural RevolutionIn 1966, Mao launched the Cultural Revolution to renew people’s loyalty to communism.Mao feared that revolutionary peasants and workers were being replaced by intellectuals in running the country.Mao shut down schools and universities throughout China, urging students to experience the revolution for themselves.Students formed groups of fighters called the Red Guards.The Red Guards attacked professors, government officials, and factory managers.
8 United States Recognition The Cold War was raging in 1949, and the United States refused to recognize the People’s Republic of China.In the Korean War, Communist China and the United States took opposing sides.It was not until 1979, under President Richard Nixon, that the United States officially recognized the People’s Republic of China.
9 A New LeaderIn 1976, Mao Zedong died, and a new leader emerged in Communist China.Deng Xiaoping became the new leader, bringing more economic freedom to China.Like Mao, Deng wanted to make China more modernHe attempted to promote foreign trade and more contact with western nations.Deng, however, brought little political change to China.
10 Four ModernizationsDeng’s major plan to modernize China was called the Four Modernizations, these were concentrated in these four areas:Farming- methods were modernized and mechanizedIndustry- was upgraded and expandedScience and Technology- were promoted and developedDefense- systems and military forces were improvedThe ultimate goal of the Four Modernizations plan was to make China more modern.
11 Four ModernizationsDeng eliminated the unpopular communes created by Mao.Instead, Deng allowed land to be leased to private individuals.After the private owners would deliver a certain amount of food to the government, they were then allowed to grow anything they wanted for profit.This system greatly increased agricultural outputDeng also welcomed foreign technology and capital as well.
12 Results of the Four Modernizations Deng’s policies had both positive and negative results.PositivesEconomy improved (more money)Citizens enjoyed better standard of livingForeign relations and trade improvedNegativesCrime and corruption increasedLarge gap between the rich and the poorBased on the economic system put in place by Deng, the Chinese people wanted more political freedom, however the Chinese Government was unwilling to grant the people more power.
13 Tiananmen SquareThe government was willing to grant economic reforms but not political ones.In 1989, demonstrators in Beijing occupied Tiananmen Square, demanding more rights and freedoms.When the people refused to disperse as ordered, the government sent in troops and tanks.Thousands of Chinese were killed or wounded.The incident showed how important it was for the Communist government in China to maintain control.Order was more important than political freedom.