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Rise of Communism in China

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1 Rise of Communism in China
Communist Timeline

2 Rise of Nationalist Party 1911-1928
Sun Yat-sen Father of Modern China – Led revolution ending Imperial Rule in China Formed Republic of China (1912) Death in 1925 – caused split between communist and nationalist for heir to rule. Chang Kai-Shek Leader of Nationalist following Sun’s death Became overall leader of ROC in 1928

3 Nationalist vs. Communist 1920s & 1930s
Communist (Red Army) early success – 4 victories Guerilla warfare tactics Nationalist changed military tactics (strong hold) 5th military effort success Communist changed tactic to positional warfare and could not match forces lost battle and support of people

4 The Long March Communist settled in S. Central China (Jianxi Province) Chiang sent army to hunt down Red Army and kill all those who favored Communism 1934 Communist started year long journey 18 Mt. Ranges (6,000 miles) 8,000 lived out of 100,000 Yan’an final destination & headquarters Postitives of March: Isolated, know land better, and went through villages gaining support Mao Zedong emerges as leader of Communist Party

5 Communist Take Over October 1, 1949
Japan takes control of Manchuria during WWII Forced Nationalist & Communist to Unite War ended in 1945 During and shortly after war, Communist carried out social reforms gaining support from peasants 1949 Nationalist and Chiang Kai-Shek defeated and fled to Taiwan nationalist tired of fighting (8 years) and lost support of people Mao forms People Republic of China

6 Great Leap Forward Purpose – Make China an equal industrial nation to Western Powers in 15 years How are they going to fulfill it? Make people work day and night Focus on making steel Reasons it failed Used the system of putting people into Communes Collective communities whose members share work and products equally (5,000 households) Motivation goes down People were doing work they did not know how to do Poor Technology

7 The Cultural Revolution May 1966 - 1969
Started by Mao Purpose Wants new ideas (His) Cleanse the party Losing power to rival leaders in the party following the failure of the Great Leap Forward Destroy the “Four Olds” Ideas, Thought, Customs, Habits Mao created the “Red Guards” Youth Militia that was encouraged to rebel against authority Communes: unattached to parents and taught to worship Mao Traveled around China for free and encouraged peasants to attack local officials

8 Death of Mao and New Leader September 9, 1976
Gang of Four (led by Mao’s Widow) vs. Deng Xiaoping Gang of Four favored Cultural Revolution and Deng was against it Most sided with Deng and he became leader Tired of death and disorder

9 Four Modernizations 1978 – 1980s
Deng’s goal – to improve 1) agriculture 2)industry 3) science & technology 4) defense Agriculture Contract responsibility system replace communes Farmers rent land and provide certain amounts at set prices and keep rest 1st 8 years – farmers income tripled

10 Four Modernizations 1978 – 1980s
Industrial Development Change Focus from “heavy industry” to “light industry” Production of small consumer goods More decision power to factory managers with reward system for being more productive 4 Special Economic Zones (SEZ’s) Along China’s east coast in the south Attract foreign capital, companies, technology Results Coastal cities grew rich – Interior regions lay behind, more urban, economy quadrupled in size (way of life improved)

11 Tiananmen Square May 13 – June 4, 1989
“5th Modernization” – Political Freedom 100,000 people into Tiananmen Square to protest Martial Law Some demonstrators refused to leave June 3rd Rounded up leaders and killed them without trial Troops opened fire without warning killing 2,000 people Economic growth can only succeed if people kept “in line”

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