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RECOVERY & REFORM OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH Obj: What issues led to reform in the Church & how effective were they in achieving their goals? CHALLENGES.

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Presentation on theme: "RECOVERY & REFORM OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH Obj: What issues led to reform in the Church & how effective were they in achieving their goals? CHALLENGES."— Presentation transcript:

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2 RECOVERY & REFORM OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH

3 Obj: What issues led to reform in the Church & how effective were they in achieving their goals? CHALLENGES TO THE PAPACY POLITICAL DIVISION IN ITALY BYZANTINE POSSESSIONS MUSLIMS HRE ATTEMPTS TO CONTROL NORTHERN & CENTRAL ITALY MONASTIC IDEAL SUFFERED DUE TO POLITICAL CONCERNS OF PAPACY & CHURCH OBLIGATIONS OF FEUDAL SYSTEM LED TO CONCERN FOR MATERIAL ITEMS AT EXPENSE OF SPIRITUAL RESPONSIBILITIES LAY INVESTITURE CEREMONY SIMONY CLERICAL MARRIAGE

4 MONASTIC REFORM CLUNY ABBEY & WM. OF AQUITAINE 910 IN FRANCE RENEWED DEDICATION TO BENEDIC- TINE RULE INDEPENDENT FROM LOCAL RULE MORE WORK, MORE PRAYER LESS RELIANCE ON MATERIAL LIFE SOUND ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT REPRESENTED ORDER + STABILITY IN DISORDERLY & UNSTABLE WORLD PAPAL SUPPORT KEY IN SUCCESS OF CLUNAIC REFORM 100S OF ABBEYS THROUGHOUT EUROPE

5 GREAT SCHISM 1054 POPE & PATRIARCH? WHO HAS UNI- VERSAL JURISDICTION LEAVENED OR UNLEAVENED BREAD ROLE OF CONSTANTINOPLE IN HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY ICONOCLASTIC CONTROVERSY SUPRESSION OF GREEK & LATIN LANGUAGES IN RESPECTIVE AREAS PATRIARCH MICHAEL I & POPE LEO IX FINAL DIVISION OF ROMAN CATHOLIC & EASTERN ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY DIVISION EXISTS TODAY

6 LAY INVESTITURE CONTROVERSY 1075 KING HENRY IV OF HRE & POPE GREGORY VII ELIMINATE POLITICAL ASPECT OF APPOINTING CHURCH OFFICIALS GREATEST REFORM POPE ONLY CHURCH HAS RIGHT TO ELECT OFFICIALS & RUN ITS OWN AFFAIRS HENRY IV DISAGREES – TRADITIONALLY KINGS APPOINT CLERGY BISHOPRIC OF MILAN IMMEDIATE CAUSE – POPE & KING DIFFER ON CANDIDATE POPE THREATENS EXCOMMUNICATION KING DEPOSES POPE AT SYNOD POPE FOLLOWS THROUGH W/ THREAT ABSOLUTION & FORGIVENESS AT CANOSSA & BAN LIFTED BUT 3 YRS LATER AT IT AGAIN EXCOMM & H4 INVADES ITALY, TAKES ROME STRUGGLE ENDS 1122 CONCORDAT OF WORMS – POPE HAS FINAL AUTHORITY

7 SOCIAL & POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES CIVIL WAR BETWEEN NOBLES VYING FOR POWER IN HRE BUILD UP OF CASTLES BY NOBILITY TO SYMBOLIZE INCREASED POWER & INDEDPENDENCE FROM POPE & EMPEROR NOBLES HOLD REAL POWER IN HRE & EMPEROR WILL NEVER HAVE ULTIMATE AUTHORITY & LOYALTY OF SUBJECTS SUCCESSORS OF HENRY IV RELINQUISH RIGHTS & PRIVILEGES TO NOBLES FREDERICK I AND II CANT STRENGTHEN MONARCHY AGAINST NOBILITY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POPE & EMPEROR ALWAYS DIFFERENT THAN WITH OTHER MONARCHS 1) POPE CROWNED EMPEROR AND 2) POPE & EMPEROR CLAIMED PAPAL STAES & NORTHERN ITALY UNDER THEIR CONTROL

8 PAPAL MONARCHY INNOCENT III REFORM CONTINUED AFTER G7 PAPAL CENTRALIZATION POPE URBAN II – PAPAL CURIA OR PAPAL COURT COURT FOR ALL APPEALS INVOLVING CHURCH: MARRIAGE, PROPERTY, OATHS MOST POPES IN 12 TH & 13 TH C. TRAINED AS LAWYERS NOT MONKS COLLEGE OF CARDINALS ONLY ONES TO SELECT POPE INNOCENT III SUPREME JUDGE OF ALL EARTHLY AFFAIRS USE OF EXCOMMUNICATION & INTERDICT – KING JOHN (E) & PHILIP II (F) INQUISITION: CRUSADE AGAI NST THOSE WITHIN THE CHURCH FRANCISCANS, DOMINICANS & CISTERCIANS – SANCTIONED BY INNOCENT DUE TO CORRUPTION WITHIN & RESULT OF REFORMS

9 NEW CHALLENGES FOR THE CHURCH PEOPLE CANT ESCAPE UPHEAVALS OF LIFE ROYAL CHALLENGES TO PAPACY ARISE EDWARD I OF ENGLAND & PHILIP IV OF FR PREPARE FOR WAR POPE BONIFACE VIII CLERICIS LAICOS – NO TAXATION OF CLERGY WITHOUT PAPAL APPROVAL & IGNORED BY ED & PHILIP UNAM SANCTUM GOD HAS SET POPES OVER KINGS PHILIP IV EXCOMMUNICATED, BONIFACE ARRESTED & RELEASED BUT DIES SOON AFTER & PHILIP ENCOURAGES CLEMENT V TO REMAIN IN AVIGNON BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY OR AVIGNON PAPACY PALACE IS MANIFESTATION OF ABUSES PLURALISM, INDULGENCES, POWER OVER SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE

10 INTERNAL STRIFE & SCANDAL OPPOSITION TO AVIGNON PAPACY FROM LAY REFORMERS CATHERINE OF SIENA – TELLS POPE GREGORY XI THAT RESIGNING IS MORE HONORABLE TO GOD THAN STAYING IN AVIGNON GREAT SCHISM : DEATH OF POPE, ROLE OF COLLEGE OF CARDINALS, ELECTION & RETRACTION & ELECTION 2 POPES: URBAN VI IN ROME & CLEMENT VII IN AVIGNON – LEGITIMACY? SCHISM OVER BUT NO MEANINGFUL REFORM IN 13TH & EARLY 14TH CENTURIES LAYS FOUNDATION FOR PROTESTANT REFORMATION

11 SOLUTIONS & REFORM (?) NEW RELIGIOUS ORDERS: FRANCISCANS, DOMINICANS DIFFERED FROM EARLIER FORMED CISTERCIANS – NEED NEW ORDERS TO DEAL WITH CORRUPTION WITHIN CHURCH AND IN SOCIETY CONCILIAR MOVEMENT – SERIES OF COUNCILS MEET TO SOLVE PROBLEM COUNCIL AT PISA – ELECT 3RD POPE COUNCIL AT CONSTANCE – ALL 3 POPES RESIGN & ELECT MARTIN V


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