2 Avignon Papacy Causes CAUSES: Political/Military Royal Challenge to PapacyBoniface Versus Philip the FairFocus: taxes on clergyReaction: Philip stops all money from France to RomeBoniface concedes and canonizesUnam SanctumBoniface tries to assert papal authority over PhilipUh oh! Philip beats up Boniface with an armyBenedict and Clement VI are in subservienceRome in RebellionItalian Families repudiateSpiritual Franciscans accuses papacy of:heresy, simony, murder of Celestine
3 Causes Economic/Social Papacy is now secular power loss of spiritual power for secularsubject to monarchs for moneyCultural/IntellectualPapacy is in unfavorable positionmaterialisticRome's interest and not local
4 What was the Avignon Papacy? Creation of Avignon PapacyClement V moved to Avignon (pope's land)independence from Philip's presureescape Rome ridden with strifeNot really under French influenceECONOMIC: expand papal taxesindulgences and expansion on salvation doctrinesCultural implication: materialism and political schemingPope John XXIwhen he tries to return to italyHe challenges Emperor Louis XISO, Marsilius and Ockham create Defender of PeacePapacy is opposed!
5 Effects of Avignon! Effects Political England restricts payments to PapacyFranceGallican liberties regulates papacy...French Church gains powerGerman and Swissreduce Papacy's powerSocialRise of Hussites and LollardsCulturalHussites of Bohemia win significant religious reforms from Council of Basel after John Huss is excommunicatedstart of Protestant Reformation
6 Great Schism Babylonian Captivity The Church in Avignon Pope Greg XI reestablishes Pope in RomeWhat is to happen....GREAT SCHISMPolitical CauseSucceeding Urban VI wants to reform the CuriaThe (majority) French cardinals do not like that idea- support return to AvignonCharles V wants papacy to stay within French influenceBACK TO AVIGNON WE GO!Then to fix it, the Conciliar Theory is considered- people want representative council to have power to regulate actions of the Pope- believed that Pope was only one part of the Church and that the council had more power than the Pope alone
7 Wait, what?Great SchismPope Clement VII (cousin of French King) is electedTWO POPES?????England, HRE, Hungary, Bohemia, and Poland for UrbanFrance, Aragon, Castile, Scotland for Clement-_- scandalous!What to do....?Mutual cession or reign oneObviously, we have to make a council to depose both!EffectRISE OF CONCILIAR THEORYproposed the Pope was a tiny part, the Church should be dominated by the faithful
8 Conciliar Theory What it meant! Pope was to maintain unity. Obviously not being donePope is just a small part of the body of the ChristiansCouncil of the Church has more power than the popePhasesCouncil of Pisadisposed both Popeselected Alexander Vaccepted by most, but there are THREE POPES! Woah...Council Of ConstancePope Martin V is elected. Ends Great Schismdeposed and accepted resignation of the three other PopesCouncil of Baselnegotiates with HussitesEastern Church rejoined Papacy, ending Conciliar Movement and restored Papacy
9 Effect of Conciliar Effect of Conciliar Movement Social A leader of an institution must provide for his peopleReligiousDelegates religious responsibility to laity and secular govtsSecular institutions now had to keep the Church in checkPoliticalPapal states can now be opposed for national and religious papacy
10 What you just learnedAvignon Papacy, known as the Babylonian Captivityallowed for secular rulers to gain power of the ChurchWhen the Avignon Papacy resolvedthere was little spiritual powerThe Great Schism was a show that the papacy could be politically dividedThe Great Schism was resolved by the Conciliar TheoryHussites and Lollards were challenges to the ChurchIn the Faith: Since when did God have two representatives on Earth?Pope's word is no longer law!the Council of Basel gave religious responsible to the lay and secularSo this was all important becauseThe Church lost power- Protestant Reformation and Crack in Medieval Mind (remember Manchester!)Humanism!Absolutism
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