Presentation on theme: "EL PRETÉRITO Spanish Completed past tense Information retrieved from studyspanish.com."— Presentation transcript:
EL PRETÉRITO Spanish Completed past tense Information retrieved from studyspanish.com
Spanish has two past tenses Preterite Imperfect
What is the preterite? The preterite tense is used as the completed past tense. We watched TV last night. The bell rang. Last year I went to Madrid. The preterite tells us specifically when an action took place.
Formation of the preterite tense 3 sets of endings: -ar verbs -er, -ir verbs irregular verbs
What does the preterite mean? The preterite verb can be translated 2 ways: Hablé = I spoke I did speak
-ar verbs forms To conjugate regular -ar verbs in the preterite, simply drop the ending (-ar) and add one of the following: é amos asteasteis óaron
The preterite is used for actions that can be viewed as single events. Ella caminó por el parque. She walked through the park. Ellos llegaron a las ocho. They arrived at eight o'clock.
The preterite is used for actions that were repeated a specific number of times, or occurred during a specific period of time. Ayer escribí tres cartas. Yesterday I wrote three letters. Vivimos allí por cuatro años. We lived there for four years.
The preterite is used for actions that were part of a chain of events. Ella se levantó, se vistió, y salió de la casa. She got up, dressed, and left the house.
The preterite is used to state the beginning or the end of an action. Empezó a nevar a las ocho de la mañana. It began to snow at eight in the morning.
The previous examples all fall within our general rule for using the preterite: The preterite is used for past actions that are seen as completed.
Los verbos irregulares As in the present tense, there are irregulars in the preterite. Some have simple stem modifications, and some are just strange!
A number of verbs that are irregular in the preterite follow a particular pattern. While their stems change, they all take the following endings: -e -imos -iste -isteis -o -ieron
These verbs have stem changes: Infinitive Stem Change andaranduv- estarestuv- tener tuv- cabercup- haberhub- poder pud- poner pus- sabersup- hacer hic- querer quis- venir vin
Here are two examples of how this pattern is applied: estar (estuv-) estuve estuviste estuvo estuvimos estuvisteis estuvieron saber (sup-) supe supiste supo supimos supisteis supieron Note: The one exception is the third person singular of hacer. The c changes to z to form "hizo.
What happens with stem-changing verbs from the present tense? -ar and -er verbs that change their stem in the present tense do not change in the preterite. They are conjugated just like other regular preterite verbs.
In order to preserve the sound of the infinitive, a number of verbs change orthographically (spelling) in the preterite tense. The following changes occur in the "yo" form only: Verbs that end in -gar change g to gu Verbs that end in -car change c to qu Verbs that end in -zar change z to c
Here are three examples: yo jugué (jugar) yo busqué (buscar) yo almorcé (almorzar)
Common verbs with these spelling changes: jugar buscaralmorzar llegarpraticarcazar pagarsacarempezar rogartocarcruzar organizar
For verbs that end in -aer, -eer, -oír, and - oer, the él/ella/usted forms use the ending "yó" (rather than ió) and the third person plural uses the ending "yeron" (rather than ieron). The remaining forms gain a written accent over the letter "i."
Other verbs like creer include: caer leer oír poseer proveer roer Exceptions to this rule include: traer atraer distraer
Verbs that end in -uir change in the same way, but the written accent over the letter "i" only occurs in the yo form. huir huí huiste huyó huimos huisteis huyeron
Other verbs like huir include: construir contribuir destruir fluir incluir influir
Verbs that end in -ucir are irregular and conjugated as follows: producir produje produjiste produjo produjimos produjisteis produjeron
Other verbs in this category include: aducir conducir coproducir deducir inducir introducir reducir traducir
The following verbs are irregular in the preterite and must be memorized: decir dije dijiste dijo dijimos dijisteis dijeron traer traje trajiste trajo trajimos trajisteis trajeron ver vi viste vio vimos visteis vieron
These four verbs are also irregular; you must memorize them: serirfuifuistefuefuimosfuisteisfueron
dar hacer di hice diste hiciste dio hizo dimos hicimos disteis hicisteis dieron hicieron
To review some of the rules for using the preterite: The preterite is used for actions that can be viewed as single events. The preterite is used for actions that were repeated a specific number of times. The preterite is used for actions that occurred during a specific period of time. The preterite is used for actions that were part of a chain of events. The preterite is used to state the beginning or the end of an action.