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1Information retrieved from studyspanish.com EL PRETÉRITOSpanishCompleted past tenseInformation retrieved from studyspanish.com
2Spanish has two past tenses PreteriteImperfectSpanish has two past tenses: preterite and imperfect. Most verbs can be put into either tense, depending upon the meaning. Today we will concentrate only on the preterite tense.
3What is the preterite?The preterite tense is used as the completed past tense.We watched TV last night.The bell rang.Last year I went to Madrid.The preterite tells us specifically when an action took place.Generally speaking, the preterite is used for actions in the past that are seen as completed. Use of the preterite tense implies that the past action had a definite beginning and definite end.
4Formation of the preterite tense 3 sets of endings:-ar verbs-er, -ir verbsirregular verbs
5What does the preterite mean? The preterite verb can be translated 2 ways:Hablé =I spokeI did speak
6-ar verbs formsTo conjugate regular -ar verbs in the preterite, simply drop the ending (-ar) and add one of the following:é amosaste asteisó aron
10The preterite is used for actions that can be viewed as single events. ･Ella caminó por el parque.･She walked through the park.･Ellos llegaron a las ocho.･They arrived at eight o'clock.
11The preterite is used for actions that were repeated a specific number of times, or occurred during a specific period of time.･Ayer escribí tres cartas.･Yesterday I wrote three letters.･･Vivimos allí por cuatro años.･We lived there for four years.
12The preterite is used for actions that were part of a chain of events. ･Ella se levantó, se vistió, y salió de la casa. ･She got up, dressed, and left the house.
13The preterite is used to state the beginning or the end of an action. ･Empezó a nevar a las ocho de la mañana. ･It began to snow at eight in the morning.
14The previous examples all fall within our general rule for using the preterite: The preterite is used for past actions that are seen as completed.
15Los verbos irregulares As in the present tense, there are irregulars in the preterite. Some have simple stem modifications, and some are just strange!
16A number of verbs that are irregular in the preterite follow a particular pattern. While their stems change, they all take the following endings:-e -imos-iste -isteis-o -ieron
18Here are two examples of how this pattern is applied: ･estar (estuv-)estuveestuvisteestuvoestuvimosestuvisteisestuvieron･saber (sup-) supesupistesuposupimossupisteissupieronNote: The one exception is the third person singular of hacer. The c changes to z to form "hizo.”
19What happens with stem-changing verbs from the present tense? -ar and -er verbs that change their stem in the present tense do not change in the preterite. They are conjugated just like other regular preterite verbs.
25In order to preserve the sound of the infinitive, a number of verbs change orthographically (spelling) in the preterite tense.The following changes occur in the "yo" form only:･Verbs that end in -gar change g to gu･Verbs that end in -car change c to qu･Verbs that end in -zar change z to c
26Here are three examples: ･yo jugué (jugar)･yo busqué (buscar)･yo almorcé (almorzar)
27Common verbs with these spelling changes: jugar buscar almorzarllegar praticar cazarpagar sacar empezarrogar tocar cruzarorganizar
28For verbs that end in -aer, -eer, -oír, and -oer, the él/ella/usted forms use the ending "yó" (rather than ió) and the third person plural uses the ending "yeron" (rather than ieron).The remaining forms gain a written accent over the letter "i."
38To review some of the rules for using the preterite: The preterite is used for actions that can be viewed as single events.The preterite is used for actions that were repeated a specific number of times.The preterite is used for actions that occurred during a specific period of time.The preterite is used for actions that were part of a chain of events.The preterite is used to state the beginning or the end of an action.