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Language and Literacy Levels Optional Module 1.2 A: Sentences.

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Presentation on theme: "Language and Literacy Levels Optional Module 1.2 A: Sentences."— Presentation transcript:

1 Language and Literacy Levels Optional Module 1.2 A: Sentences

2 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Instructions If after reading the glossary, indicators and examples about this language item in the Levels you still need to learn more, it is anticipated that you will work through this PowerPoint at your own pace and without the need to be supported by a trainer. However, depending upon your school's implementation plan, you may be able to or post any questions to your trainer or discuss them with your Professional Learning Community or similar group.

3 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide A sentence is… the way we make meaning by using one or more clauses.

4 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide A clause is … > a unit of meaning based around a verb. A clause requires a happening expressed by a verb. Therefore a sentence can be as simple as and as short as Stop! The floor is not a clause because it does not make meaning. Add the verb sweep to make sweep the floor and we have a clause.

5 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Clauses Clauses typically contain: - the mandatory verb - who or what is participating in the happening (typically expressed by nouns) - and extra information about the verb (typically expressed by adverbs, adverb groups and prepositional phrases).

6 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Clauses Lets examine the sentence The netball team won the grand final last week. to see how this works. Meaning centres around the verb won, with The netball team and the grand final as the nouns participating in what is happening and last week providing the extra information about the verb (when did it happen?).

7 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Checkpoint Sentences are made up of clauses. Clauses are the basic unit of meaning. A clause must at least contain a verb.

8 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Types of sentences There are three types of sentences: - Simple sentences (one verb so just one clause) - Compound sentences (more than one verb so more than one clause) - Complex sentences (more than one verb so more than one clause joined in different way to compound sentences)

9 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Simple sentences only have one verb/verb group (shown in green) I love the circus. Last Saturday IIwent to the circus in Bonython Park. Last Saturday I went to the circus in Bonython Park with my sister. I visited the Circus. I hope to see* performing dogs. * a verb can be made up of more than one word

10 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Compound Sentences are made up of more than one clause. Co-ordinating AKA linking conjunctions (in blue) are the only way to combine the clauses to make compound sentences. I went to the circus and I saw the performing dogs. I went to the circus but my sister was sick. My sister was sick so we didnt go to the circus.

11 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Co-ordinating AKA linking conjunctions … join clauses to set up a relationship of equal status (eg Tom watched television and Asif read.) The clause Tom watched television is no more or less important than the clause Asif read. They could be two separate simples sentences, but here they have been linked by the co-ordinating or linking conjunction to make a compound sentence. Co- ordinating suggests an equal partnership. There is only a small group of this type of conjunction (eg and, but, so, and then)

12 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Checkpoint Sentences are made up of one or more clauses. One verb = one clause = simple sentence More than one verb = more than one clause = compound OR complex sentence The only way a compound sentence is formed is through the use of the few co- ordinating AKA linking conjunctions (eg and)

13 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Complex sentences Most of the remaining slides are about complex sentences and the ways they can be formed. These ways are: - Subordinating/binding conjunctions - Relative clauses - Non-finite verbs or verb groups

14 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Complex Sentences using subordinating/binding conjunctions One way of forming complex sentences is when the conjunction is bound to a clause and therefore needs to be added to another clause before it makes sense. It needs to go with the clause wherever the clause is moved within the sentence. When I came home… (needs another clause to make sense) When I came home, I had lunch. (now bound to another clause so it makes sense) I had lunch when I came home. (conjunction moves with the clause so it continues to make sense)

15 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Complex Sentences using subordinating/binding conjunctions The type of conjunction used here is called a subordinating or binding conjunction. Subordinating suggests that unlike the clause in a compound sentence there is an unequal status between the clauses in a complex sentence.

16 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Complex Sentences using subordinating/binding conjunctions There is a far greater number of sub-ordinating AKA binding conjunctions than co-ordinating AKA linking conjunctions. Because is learnt quite early and is used at Language and Literacy Level 5. Other examples include: when, since, after, despite, although, if, while, unless, even though

17 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Complex Sentences using relative clauses using non-finite clauses A clause which begins with a relative pronoun (eg who, which, that) can provide additional non-essential information as an aside (eg The lift, which had only just been fixed, stopped between menswear and furniture.) These asides should have commas. These clauses can also provide essential information about a noun in the sentence (eg The man who fixed it is now on holidays.) In this example, the relative clause who fixed it is included in the sentence to add some important information to distinguish this man from all others and so does not need commas.

18 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Complex Sentences using relative clauses using relative clauses Which of the following relative clauses gives some extra non-essential information about a noun in the sentence? HINT how are they punctuated? The dogs, which had been rescued from the pound, performed brilliantly. My sister who had a bad cold was not allowed to go to the circus.

19 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Complex Sentences using relative clauses using relative clauses The dogs, which had been rescued from the pound, performed brilliantly. The non-essential information (the aside) about the dog contained in the relative clause is surrounded by commas. This is like someone lowering their voice or speaking behind their hand to show it is not essential to the other clause.

20 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Checkpoint Unlike compound sentences, complex sentences can be formed in different ways. One of these ways is by using sub-ordinating (AKA binding) conjunctions of which there are many (eg unless, after, although, when). Another way is through the use of relative clauses which begin with relative pronouns (eg who, that, which) and give more information about a noun in the sentence.

21 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Complex Sentences using non-finite clauses A non-finite clause has no subject (no one/nothing is doing the verb) and it carries no tense. There are two types of non-finite verbs: infinitives: the to form of the verb participles: - ing: and – ed (en) added to the end of the verb

22 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Complex Sentences using non-finite clauses Infinitives: the to form of the verb: to write (eg It took ten years to write her first book. To write her essay, she needed peace and quiet.) The use of infinites begins at Level 5 (eg I went to the shops to buy some lollies).

23 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Complex Sentences using non-finite clauses Participles: - ing: writing; and – ed (en) forms: written (eg Writing in her favourite café for several hours each day, she was finally able to finish her first novel. Hating Alison Ashley, written by popular author Robin Klein, is an absolutely hilarious read for young and old.)

24 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Complex Sentences using non-finite clauses The use of having as a non-finite auxiliary is another common form of non-finite clause: having written; having been written (Having written her first book, she now felt she could do anything. Having been written by Robin Klein, we can expect it to be another great read.)

25 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Fancy a challenge? On a previous slide it stated that a non- finite clause has no subject … and carries no tense. To test this, decide how this short text on the next slide written in past tense would be changed to present tense.

26 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Fancy a challenge? To score a goal, I practised each afternoon after school. Having scored one, I changed my technique and kept trying until I scored ten more times.

27 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Fancy a challenge? To score a goal, I practise each afternoon after school. Having scored one, I change my technique and keep trying until I score ten more times. NB The infinite to score and the non-finite auxiliary having scored do not change tense. They also have no subject unlike practise, change, keep and score which in this text all have I as the subject.

28 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Checkpoint A non-finite clause has no subject (no one/nothing is doing the verb) and it carries no tense. There are two types of non-finite verbs: infinitives: the to form of the verb participles: - ing: and – ed (en) added to the end of the verb

29 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Grammatically simple but lexically dense sentences are sometimes more appropriate Finally lets quickly return to simple sentences. The following sentences only contain one verb and are therefore simple sentences, but are indicative of Levels 11 and above. The rescued performing dogs gave a magnificent performance of their skills. The extraordinary performance of the rescued dogs captivated everyone. The continued exploitation of performing animals for human entertainment is evidence of a debased society.

30 Faculty of Edit this on the Slide MasterThe University of Adelaide Grammatically simple but lexically dense sentences In some text types in some learning areas it is more appropriate to use grammatically simple sentences. The complexity of these sentences is in the choice of vocabulary (eg magnificent) and the way lots of information is tightly packed within the simple sentence (eg The continued exploitation of performing animals for human entertainment…).

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