Presentation on theme: "Clauses A clause is a group of words that contains a subject (noun) and a predicate (verb)"— Presentation transcript:
Clauses A clause is a group of words that contains a subject (noun) and a predicate (verb)
Phrase vs. Clause Phrases act as certain parts of speech but do NOT include both a noun and a verb within them. Clauses act as certain parts of speech but DO include both a noun and a verb within them.
Main Clause A main clause is also known as an independent clause. A main clause has a subject and a verb and can stand on its own as a sentence (Independent: can stand on its own)
Main Clause, continued: Every sentence must have at least one main clause A sentence may have more than one main clause Main clauses within sentences are separated by a comma and conjunction OR connected with a semicolon.
Examples: Main Clauses Children love Halloween, and they dress in costumes. Main clause #1: Children (noun) love (verb) Halloween (D.O.) Main clause #2: They (pronoun) dress (verb) in costumes (prep. phrase) Each main clause can be a sentence by itself
More examples: Main Clauses My sister runs track, and I play basketball. Main Clause #1: My sister (noun) runs (verb) track (D.O.). Main Clause #2: I (pronoun) play (verb) basketball (D.O.).
Subordinate Clauses A subordinate clause has a subject (noun) and a predicate (verb), but it CANNOT stand on its own as a sentence. Must be attached to a main clause in order for it to make sense: Pizza is the food that I (noun) love (verb) the most. That I love the most CANNOT stand on its own as a sentence
Subordinate Clauses, continued: Can begin with a relative pronoun: Who, whom, whose, which, that Mrs. Steib is my teacher who (pronoun) can speak (verb phrase) with a British accent (prep phrase). My sister, who (pronoun) is (verb) nine years old, is in fourth grade.
Subordinate Clauses, continued: Can also begin with a subordinating conjunction. Examples of subordinating conjunctions: After, although, as, as far as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, if, in order that, since, so long as, so that, than, unless, until, when, whenever, where, while
Subordinating Clauses Examples: Because she was trying to annoy me, my sister chewed very loudly. I earned an A on my Biology test after I spent a whole night studying. Since construction is happening, we often deal with noise during class.
Clauses and types of sentences A simple sentence has one main and no subordinate clauses. We ate pizza. We ate pizza at seven oclock in the restaurant on the corner. (Still simple even though it has prep. phrases: only one main clause) At noon on Monday, my friend had a car accident. (Still simple even though it has prep phrases and a direct object).
Clauses and types of sentences A compound sentence has more than one main clause and no subordinate clauses. Mrs. Steib can speak with a British accent, and we think she is weird. (or cool) The noise from construction is distracting, but we try to concentrate despite it. My sister didnt eat the pizza, nor did I. I understood the idea, yet I got that part wrong on the test.
Do Now: On notebook paper, write: 3 simple sentences. Label noun and verb. 3 compound sentences. Label noun and verb in each clause. Punctuate appropriately! (Comma with conjunction OR semicolon) Save room on your paper! You will be adding sentences to this. Pair up with a classmate to check each others sentences.
Clauses and types of sentences, continued: A complex sentence includes one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Since Tammys friend Jenny was sick, Tammy got Jennys assignments for her. (sub. Clause in blue/ main clause in black) We got on the bus after we won a close game. Before we ate dinner, our dad gave us a lecture because we came home late. (two sub. But only one main clause)
Clauses and types of sentences A compound-complex sentence has more than one main clause and at least one subordinate clause. We won the game, (main) and we celebrated at Joes house (main) since his parents invited us. (subordinate) When my sister graduated from college (subordinate), she returned home to live for awhile, (main) and I had to give up my own bathroom. (main)
Review: types of sentences Simple: Only one main clause; no subordinate clauses Compound: More than one main clause; no subordinate clauses Complex: One main clause and one or more subordinate clauses Compound-complex: More than one main clause and at least one subordinate clause.
Do Now: Get out your sheet with simple and compound sentences. Add: 2 sentences with complex sentences Add: 2 sentences with compound-complex sentences. Pair up with a classmate to check each others sentences. Turn in all sentences when you have checked them.
Three types of subordinate clauses: Adjective clauses Adverb clauses Noun clauses Rememberto be a clause, a group of words must have a subject (noun) AND a predicate (verb)
Adjective Clause An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that acts the same way an adjective does (modifies noun or pronoun) Begins with a relative pronoun: who, whom, whose, which, that
Adjective Clauses continued: Halloween decorations can be spooky. Halloween decorations are becoming more popular. Combine both simple sentences into one complex sentence with an adjective clause: Halloween decorations, which can be spooky, are becoming more popular.
Adjective Clauses, continued: I have a cold. This cold is a nuisance. I have a cold which is a nuisance. (subject: which; predicate: is) The one act plays are this weekend. The one act plays should be entertaining. The one act plays, which should be entertaining, are this weekend.
Adjective Clauses, continued Can be essential (necessary to the meaning of the sentence) or nonessential (provide additional information). Essential: dont use commas Nonessential: use commas (see previous slides)
Adverb Clauses An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. It tells when, where, how, why, to what extent, or under what condition. See Clause Cheat Sheet
Adverb Clauses continued: Examples (adv. clauses in blue) Whenever it is quiet, I study hard. (Adv. Clause modifies verb study. It tells when) I remained calm as long as you were nearby. (Adv. Clause modifies adjective calm. It tells under what condition.) She can swim faster than I can run. (Adv. Clause modifies adv. faster. It tells to what extent)
Find the adverb clauses: Wherever he goes, my friend Tom draws attention. He draws attention because he has a very unique hairstyle with spikes and bright red highlights. If someone comments on it, Tom says thanks. Teachers dont mind Toms hairstyle as long as it is not a distraction for others.
More adverb clauses: Since I have practice after school, I dont eat supper until 6:00. If I continue to earn good grades, my parents will reward me. The rewards will continue as long as my effort is strong and my attitude is positive.
Do Now: Use Clause Cheatsheet Write six sentences (do NOT copy notes). Write these on your own paper: one each that tells: When Where How Why To what extent Under what condition Underline adverb clauses
Noun clauses A noun clause is a subordinate clause used as a noun. Like gerund phrases, noun clauses can be used as: Subject Direct object Object of the preposition Predicate nominative See Cheat Sheet for words that begin noun clauses
Noun Clause as Subject: Whoever wants to climb Mount Everest is adventurous. What makes mountain climbing exciting is that it is dangerous and demanding. Whatever happens during a climb can endanger the climber. What challenges climbers is the dangerous and exciting nature of the climb.
Noun clauses as direct object: Teachers instruct whoever is in their classes. Dogs love whoever feeds and cares for them. Parents explain whatever their rules are.
Noun Clauses as object of the preposition I asked my friend for whatever money she could spare. My brain is focused on how many minutes will pass before lunch. I like to think about how noun clauses make me a better writer.
Noun clauses as predicate nominative Where no one has been is where daring people want to go. What I know for sure is that I want to go to college. What I dont know yet is what career I want to pursue. (All of these have noun clause as subject also)
Noun clauses My sister can be annoying. (Noun clause): Whoever sleeps in the room next to me can be annoying. Students like everything. Students like whatever happens on Friday.