Presentation on theme: "Clauses A clause is a group of words that contains a subject (noun) and a predicate (verb)"— Presentation transcript:
1ClausesA clause is a group of words that contains a subject (noun) and a predicate (verb)
2Phrase vs. ClausePhrases act as certain parts of speech but do NOT include both a noun and a verb within them.Clauses act as certain parts of speech but DO include both a noun and a verb within them.
3Main Clause A main clause is also known as an independent clause. A main clause has a subject and a verb and can stand on its own as a sentence(Independent: can stand on its own)
4Main Clause, continued: Every sentence must have at least one main clauseA sentence may have more than one main clauseMain clauses within sentences are separated by a comma and conjunction OR connected with a semicolon.
5Examples: Main Clauses Children love Halloween, and they dress in costumes.Main clause #1: Children (noun) love (verb) Halloween (D.O.)Main clause #2: They (pronoun) dress (verb) in costumes (prep. phrase)Each main clause can be a sentence by itself
6More examples: Main Clauses My sister runs track, and I play basketball.Main Clause #1: My sister (noun) runs (verb) track (D.O.).Main Clause #2: I (pronoun) play (verb) basketball (D.O.).
7Subordinate ClausesA subordinate clause has a subject (noun) and a predicate (verb), but it CANNOT stand on its own as a sentence.Must be attached to a main clause in order for it to make sense:Pizza is the food that I (noun) love (verb) the most.That I love the most CANNOT stand on its own as a sentence
8Subordinate Clauses, continued: Can begin with a relative pronoun:Who, whom, whose, which, thatMrs. Steib is my teacher who (pronoun) can speak (verb phrase) with a British accent (prep phrase).My sister, who (pronoun) is (verb) nine years old, is in fourth grade.
9Subordinate Clauses, continued: Can also begin with a subordinating conjunction. Examples of subordinating conjunctions:After, although, as, as far as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, if, in order that, since, so long as, so that, than, unless, until, when, whenever, where, while
10Subordinating Clauses Examples:Because she was trying to annoy me, my sister chewed very loudly.I earned an A on my Biology test after I spent a whole night studying.Since construction is happening, we often deal with noise during class.
11Clauses and types of sentences A simple sentence has one main and no subordinate clauses.We ate pizza.We ate pizza at seven o’clock in the restaurant on the corner. (Still simple even though it has prep. phrases: only one main clause)At noon on Monday, my friend had a car accident. (Still simple even though it has prep phrases and a direct object).
12Clauses and types of sentences A compound sentence has more than one main clause and no subordinate clauses.Mrs. Steib can speak with a British accent, and we think she is weird. (or cool) The noise from construction is distracting, but we try to concentrate despite it.My sister didn’t eat the pizza, nor did I.I understood the idea, yet I got that part wrong on the test.
13Do Now: On notebook paper, write: 3 simple sentences. Label noun and verb.3 compound sentences. Label noun and verb in each clause. Punctuate appropriately! (Comma with conjunction OR semicolon)Save room on your paper! You will be adding sentences to this.Pair up with a classmate to check each other’s sentences.
14Clauses and types of sentences, continued: A complex sentence includes one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.Since Tammy’s friend Jenny was sick, Tammy got Jenny’s assignments for her. (sub. Clause in blue/ main clause in black)We got on the bus after we won a close game.Before we ate dinner, our dad gave us a lecture because we came home late. (two sub. But only one main clause)
15Clauses and types of sentences A compound-complex sentence has more than one main clause and at least one subordinate clause.We won the game, (main) and we celebrated at Joe’s house (main) since his parents invited us. (subordinate)When my sister graduated from college (subordinate), she returned home to live for awhile, (main) and I had to give up my own bathroom. (main)
16Review: types of sentences Simple: Only one main clause; no subordinate clausesCompound: More than one main clause; no subordinate clausesComplex: One main clause and one or more subordinate clausesCompound-complex: More than one main clause and at least one subordinate clause.
17Do Now: Get out your sheet with simple and compound sentences. Add: 2 sentences with complex sentencesAdd: 2 sentences with compound-complex sentences.Pair up with a classmate to check each other’s sentences.Turn in all sentences when you have checked them.
18Three types of subordinate clauses: Adjective clausesAdverb clausesNoun clausesRemember—to be a clause, a group of words must have a subject (noun) AND a predicate (verb)
19Adjective ClauseAn adjective clause is a subordinate clause that acts the same way an adjective does (modifies noun or pronoun)Begins with a relative pronoun: who, whom, whose, which, that
20Adjective Clauses continued: Halloween decorations can be spooky.Halloween decorations are becoming more popular.Combine both simple sentences into one complex sentence with an adjective clause:Halloween decorations, which can be spooky, are becoming more popular.
21Adjective Clauses, continued: I have a cold.This cold is a nuisance.I have a cold which is a nuisance. (subject: which; predicate: is)The one act plays are this weekend.The one act plays should be entertaining.The one act plays, which should be entertaining, are this weekend.
22Adjective Clauses, continued Can be essential (necessary to the meaning of the sentence) or nonessential (provide additional information).Essential: don’t use commasNonessential: use commas(see previous slides)
23Adverb ClausesAn adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. It tells when, where, how, why, to what extent, or under what condition.See Clause Cheat Sheet
24Adverb Clauses continued: Examples (adv. clauses in blue)Whenever it is quiet, I study hard. (Adv. Clause modifies verb study. It tells when)I remained calm as long as you were nearby. (Adv. Clause modifies adjective calm. It tells under what condition.)She can swim faster than I can run. (Adv. Clause modifies adv. faster. It tells to what extent)
25Find the adverb clauses: Wherever he goes, my friend Tom draws attention.He draws attention because he has a very unique hairstyle with spikes and bright red highlights.If someone comments on it, Tom says “thanks.”Teachers don’t mind Tom’s hairstyle as long as it is not a distraction for others.
26More adverb clauses:Since I have practice after school, I don’t eat supper until 6:00.If I continue to earn good grades, my parents will reward me.The rewards will continue as long as my effort is strong and my attitude is positive.
27Do Now: Use “Clause Cheat”sheet Write six sentences (do NOT copy notes). Write these on your own paper: one each that tells:WhenWhereHowWhyTo what extentUnder what conditionUnderline adverb clauses
28Noun clausesA noun clause is a subordinate clause used as a noun. Like gerund phrases, noun clauses can be used as:SubjectDirect objectObject of the prepositionPredicate nominativeSee Cheat Sheet for words that begin noun clauses
29Noun Clause as Subject: Whoever wants to climb Mount Everest is adventurous.What makes mountain climbing exciting is that it is dangerous and demanding.Whatever happens during a climb can endanger the climber.What challenges climbers is the dangerous and exciting nature of the climb.
30Noun clauses as direct object: Teachers instruct whoever is in their classes.Dogs love whoever feeds and cares for them.Parents explain whatever their rules are.
31Noun Clauses as object of the preposition I asked my friend for whatever money she could spare.My brain is focused on how many minutes will pass before lunch.I like to think about how noun clauses make me a better writer.
32Noun clauses as predicate nominative Where no one has been is where daring people want to go.What I know for sure is that I want to go to college.What I don’t know yet is what career I want to pursue.(All of these have noun clause as subject also)
33Noun clauses My sister can be annoying. (Noun clause): Whoever sleeps in the room next to me can be annoying.Students like everything.Students like whatever happens on Friday.