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Language and Literacy Levels Module 1.2 B: Circumstances.

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1 Language and Literacy Levels Module 1.2 B: Circumstances

2 Instructions If after reading the glossary, indicators and examples about this language item in the Levels you still need to learn more, it is anticipated that you will work through this PowerPoint at your own pace and without the need to be supported by a trainer. However, depending upon your school's implementation plan, you may be able to or post any questions to your trainer or discuss them with your Professional Learning Community or similar group.

3 What does it mean? When you hear someone say “I’ll do it under these circumstances?” what do they mean by circumstances? It means they want to decide things like when and where it happens? This is very much the same as the grammatical term of circumstances. Both involve giving extra information about the doing (the verb or process).

4 Circumstances Circumstances can be categorised according to the type of detail they provide about the verb. Students tend to provide these circumstances (answers to questions about the verb) by Levels 5-6  Place (where?): He knocked the clock off the shelf.  Time (when?): I finished it this morning.  Accompaniment (with whom?): He left with his friend.  Manner (how? like what?): She opened it carefully. She opened it with a can-opener. She opened it like an expert.

5 Circumstances Students tend to provide these circumstances (answers to questions about the verb) from Levels 8-10  Matter (what is it about?): He was concerned about the clock.  Cause (for what reason/purpose? on whose behalf?): The man died of heart failure. He ate it for breakfast. She opened it for his mother.  Role (as who?): She worked as a doctor.

6 Circumstances Students tend to provide these circumstances (answers to questions about the verb) between Levels  Angle (from whose viewpoint?): According to his doctors, his heart was very weak.  Contingency (in what contrary situation?): With a modified diet and exercise program, he could have lived for years. Despite the warnings, he continued to work long hours.

7 Circumstances Circumstances are sometimes called ‘adverbials’ and usually have the form of:  an adverb or adverb group/phrase: carefully or very carefully  a prepositional phrase: off the shelf; like an expert; according to doctors; despite the warnings  a noun group/phrase: this morning; one sunny afternoon

8 Circumstances In this sentence “mow” is what is happening (verb/process) I’ll mow on the weekend. (on the weekend gives information about when the verb will happen) I’ll mow under the trees. (under the trees gives information about where the verb will happen)

9 More information about the verb I’ll mow for free. (for free gives information about what has caused the verb to happen) I’ll mow quickly. (quickly gives information about the manner in which the verb will happen) I’ll mow with the push mower. (with the push mower gives information about the manner by which the verb will happen)

10 Checkpoint There are several types of circumstances. They all give more information (eg where, when, how, with what) about the verb. Different parts of speech (eg nouns, adverbs) can act as circumstances (ie give information about the verb)

11 Sequence and complexity There is a fairly predictable sequence to the types of circumstances that students use. They usually begin with where and when circumstances (eg I swam at the beach, I swam on the weekend.) They tend to begin by placing the circumstances later in the sentence (eg I swam on the weekend) before gaining enough control of grammar to pace them at the beginning (eg On the weekend I swam.)

12 Sequence and complexity After a while they will start using them in combination (eg On the weekend I swam at the beach). Later again they will use commas after circumstances at the beginning of sentences (eg On the weekend, I swam at the beach).

13 Sequence and complexity As well as adding new types of circumstances, students will use more complex examples of circumstances they have been using for some time (eg Today > This evening > During the war > Throughout the early part of her life) Scan through the circumstances in Levels 1-10 for more examples If you want more of a challenge scan the examples in Levels The Levels will give you a sense of not only what type of circumstances to look for in your student’s work but also where they might be in the sentence, how many there could be and how complex they could be.

14 Fancy a challenge? If you would prefer to practice locating circumstances before you “fly solo”, try locating the circumstance/s in this sentence. HINT find the verb first. What is happening? What’s going on? We carefully placed the stopper into the test tube.

15 Fancy a challenge? We carefully placed the stopper into the test tube. Here are the two circumstances in the sentence. What question is answered by carefully? What question is answered by into the test tube?

16 Fancy a challenge? We carefully placed the stopper into the test tube. Here are the two circumstances in the sentence. What question is answered by carefully? How - manner What question is answered by into the test tube? Where - place

17 Try locating circumstances in the text below With little thought for her own safety, she plunged headlong into the raging waters. Within seconds, she sank in the swollen river, but quickly resurfaced with the child. Find the verbs and then the where, when, how etc information about them.

18 Try locating circumstances in the text below Verbs are shown in green With little thought for her own safety, she plunged headlong into the raging waters. Within seconds, she sank in the swollen river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.

19 Try locating circumstances in the text below First verb is shown in green and circumstance of manner in blue With little thought for her own safety, she plunged headlong into the raging waters. Within seconds, she sank in the swollen river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.

20 Try locating circumstances in the text below First verb is shown in green and circumstance of manner in blue With little thought for her own safety, she plunged headlong into the raging waters. Within seconds, she sank in the swollen river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.

21 Try locating circumstances in the text below First verb is shown in green and circumstance of where (place) in blue With little thought for her own safety, she plunged headlong into the raging waters. Within seconds, she sank in the swollen river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.

22 Try locating circumstances in the text below Next verb is shown in green and circumstance of when (time) in blue With little thought for her own safety, she plunged headlong into the raging waters. Within seconds, she sank in the swollen river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.

23 Try locating circumstances in the text below Next verb is shown in green and circumstance of where (place) in blue With little thought for her own safety, she plunged headlong into the raging waters. Within seconds, she sank in the swollen river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.

24 Try locating circumstances in the text below Last verb is shown in green and circumstance of how (means) in blue With little thought for her own safety, she plunged headlong into the raging waters. Within seconds, she sank in the swollen river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.

25 Try locating circumstances in the text below Last verb is shown in green and circumstance of with whom (accompaniment) in blue With little thought for her own safety, she plunged headlong into the raging waters. Within seconds, she sank in the swollen river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.

26 Try locating circumstances in the text below All verbs are shown in green and all circumstances in blue With little thought for her own safety, she plunged headlong into the raging waters. Within seconds, she sank in the swollen river, but quickly resurfaced with the child.

27 Fancy another challenge? This challenge is really a double challenge because you firstly need to find verbs that are NOT doing words. These verbs show relationships between the things in the sentence (eg Xian has two brothers. Julie is clever.) The second part of the challenge is to locate circumstances that are high in the Language and Literacy Levels.

28 Fancy another challenge? As a migrant, she had little knowledge of the local road rules. Despite this disadvantage, she became dux of her driving school.

29 Fancy another challenge? As a migrant, she had little knowledge of the local road rules. Despite this disadvantage, she became dux of her driving school. FYI As a migrant is a circumstance of cause and Despite this disadvantage is a circumstance of contingency

30 Why bother? This module is about assigning Levels, but to end the module it is important to keep in mind that the teaching of circumstances in general or some types to certain students enables them to enhance their written and oral work. To illustrate the point, on the next slide are some of the earlier sentences without the circumstances.

31 On the weekend I swam at the beach. I swam. We carefully placed the stopper into the test tube. We placed the stopper. With little thought for her own safety, she plunged headlong into the raging waters. She plunged. Within seconds, she sank in the swollen river, but quickly resurfaced with the child. She sank, but resurfaced.

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