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Fragments. What is a fragment? A fragment is a group of words that is missing parts of a complete sentence. A fragment is a group of words that is missing.

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Presentation on theme: "Fragments. What is a fragment? A fragment is a group of words that is missing parts of a complete sentence. A fragment is a group of words that is missing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fragments

2 What is a fragment? A fragment is a group of words that is missing parts of a complete sentence. A fragment is a group of words that is missing parts of a complete sentence. Remember that any sentence, in order to be complete, must express a complete thought and must include both a subject and a verb. Remember that any sentence, in order to be complete, must express a complete thought and must include both a subject and a verb.

3 Sentence: There I was, in the middle of my morning shower, when it happened. Sentence followed by a fragment: There I was, in the middle of my morning shower. When it happened.

4 How can you find a fragment? Ask: Is there a subject in the word group? A verb? Ask: Is there a subject in the word group? A verb? Ask: Does the word group express a complete thought? Ask: Does the word group express a complete thought? If the answer to any of these questions is no, then the word group is a fragment. If the answer to any of these questions is no, then the word group is a fragment.

5 Which of the following is a fragment? Emily was a little nervous about Monday. Her first day at her new job. A) Emily was a little nervous about Monday. B) Her first day at her new job. C) neither of the above D) both of the above

6 Which of the following is a fragment? Emily was a little nervous about Monday. Her first day at her new job. ANSWER: A) Emily was a little nervous about Monday. B) Her first day at her new job. C) neither of the above D) both of the above

7 Which of the following is a fragment? Because she wanted to be rested in the morning. Emily knew she had to go to sleep. A) Because she wanted to be rested in the morning. B) Emily knew she had to go to sleep. C) neither of the above D) both of the above

8 Which of the following is a fragment? Because she wanted to be rested in the morning. Emily knew she had to go to sleep. ANSWER: A) Because she wanted to be rested in the morning. B) Emily knew she had to go to sleep. C) neither of the above D) both of the above

9 Which of the following is a fragment? Soon she fell asleep. Feeling better about the next day already, she slept well. A) Soon she fell asleep. B) Feeling better about the next day already, she slept well. C) neither of the above D) both of the above

10 Which of the following is a fragment? Soon she fell asleep. Feeling better about the next day already, she slept well. ANSWER: A) Soon she fell asleep. B) Feeling better about the next day already, she slept well. C) neither of the above D) both of the above

11 How can you correct a fragment? There are two basic ways to fix a fragment: – Add what is missing (a subject, a verb, or both). – Attach the fragment to the sentence before or after it.

12 Fragments that start with prepositions What is a preposition? What is a preposition? A preposition connects a noun, pronoun, or verb with other information about it. * Remember: While phrases that begin with prepositions usually contain a noun, this noun cannot be the subject of the sentence. Example: After the swim meet, I went out for dinner. In this sentence, I is the subject, not the swim meet.

13 How do you correct fragments that start with prepositions? Correct the fragment by joining it to the sentence before or after it. Correct the fragment by joining it to the sentence before or after it. Sentence followed by a fragment: Some parents worry. About their childrens imaginary companions. Corrected sentence: Some parents worry about their childrens imaginary companions.

14 How would you correct this fragment? After finishing my piano lesson one day. I took a little walk through Mr. Licarras forest. After finishing my piano lesson one day. I took a little walk through Mr. Licarras forest. A) After finishing my piano lesson one day, I took a little walk through Mr. Licarras forest. A) After finishing my piano lesson one day, I took a little walk through Mr. Licarras forest. B) After finishing my piano lesson. One day, I took a little walk through Mr. Licarras forest. B) After finishing my piano lesson. One day, I took a little walk through Mr. Licarras forest. C) I took a little walk through Mr. Licarras forest. After finishing my piano lesson one day. D) no change

15 How would you correct this fragment? After finishing my piano lesson one day. I took a little walk through Mr. Licarras forest. After finishing my piano lesson one day. I took a little walk through Mr. Licarras forest. ANSWER: A) After finishing my piano lesson one day, I took a little walk through Mr. Licarras forest. A) After finishing my piano lesson one day, I took a little walk through Mr. Licarras forest. B) After finishing my piano lesson. One day, I took a little walk through Mr. Licarras forest. B) After finishing my piano lesson. One day, I took a little walk through Mr. Licarras forest. C) I took a little walk through Mr. Licarras forest. After finishing my piano lesson one day. D) no change

16 Fragments that start with dependent words What is a dependent word? What is a dependent word? A dependent word (also called a subordinating conjunction) is the first word in a dependent clause. * Remember: A dependent clause is not a sentence because it does not express a complete thought, even though it contains a subject and a verb. Example: Since I won the meet. I have not stopped smiling. Since I won has a subject (I) and a verb (won), but it doesnt express a complete thought. (What happened since I won?)

17 How do you correct fragments that start with a dependent word? Connect a fragment that starts with a dependent word to the sentence before or after it. Connect a fragment that starts with a dependent word to the sentence before or after it. Sentence followed by a fragment: There I was, in the middle of my morning shower. When it happened. Corrected sentence: There I was, in the middle of my morning shower, when it happened.

18 How would you correct this fragment? I hate when I cant finish my shower. Because I suddenly get nothing but freezing cold water. I hate when I cant finish my shower. Because I suddenly get nothing but freezing cold water. A) I hate when I cant finish my shower because. I suddenly get nothing but freezing cold water. B) I hate when I cant finish my shower because I suddenly get nothing. But freezing cold water. B) I hate when I cant finish my shower because I suddenly get nothing. But freezing cold water. C) I hate when I cant finish my shower because I suddenly get nothing but freezing cold water. C) I hate when I cant finish my shower because I suddenly get nothing but freezing cold water. D) no change

19 How would you correct this fragment? I hate when I cant finish my shower. Because I suddenly get nothing but freezing cold water. I hate when I cant finish my shower. Because I suddenly get nothing but freezing cold water. ANSWER: A) I hate when I cant finish my shower because. I suddenly get nothing but freezing cold water. B) I hate when I cant finish my shower because I suddenly get nothing. But freezing cold water. B) I hate when I cant finish my shower because I suddenly get nothing. But freezing cold water. C) I hate when I cant finish my shower because I suddenly get nothing but freezing cold water. C) I hate when I cant finish my shower because I suddenly get nothing but freezing cold water. D) no change

20 Fragments that start with –ing verb forms What is an –ing verb form? What is an –ing verb form? An –ing verb form (also called a gerund) is the form of a verb that ends in –ing: walking, writing, running. * Remember: Unless it comes with a helping verb (like was), an –ing verb form cannot be a complete verb in a sentence. It can, however, be the subject of a sentence. Example: Walking is good exercise.

21 How do you correct fragments that start with –ing verb forms? Correct a fragment that starts with an –ing verb form either by adding the missing elements of the sentence (such as a subject and a helping verb) or by connecting it to the previous or next sentence. Correct a fragment that starts with an –ing verb form either by adding the missing elements of the sentence (such as a subject and a helping verb) or by connecting it to the previous or next sentence. Sentence followed by a fragment: I was humming to myself. Walking down the road. Corrected sentences: I was humming to myself. I was walking down the road. I was humming to myself, walking down the road.

22 How would you correct this fragment? I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty. Emphasizing the things I do have, not the ones I dont. I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty. Emphasizing the things I do have, not the ones I dont. A) I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty. Emphasizing the things I do have. Not the ones I dont. A) I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty. Emphasizing the things I do have. Not the ones I dont. B) I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty, emphasizing the things I do have, not the ones I dont. B) I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty, emphasizing the things I do have, not the ones I dont. C) I realized that I had to rise about this difficulty, emphasizing. The things I do have, not the ones I dont. D) no change

23 How would you correct this fragment? I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty. Emphasizing the things I do have, not the ones I dont. I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty. Emphasizing the things I do have, not the ones I dont. ANSWER: A) I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty. Emphasizing the things I do have. Not the ones I dont. A) I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty. Emphasizing the things I do have. Not the ones I dont. B) I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty, emphasizing the things I do have, not the ones I dont. B) I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty, emphasizing the things I do have, not the ones I dont. C) I realized that I had to rise about this difficulty, emphasizing. The things I do have, not the ones I dont. D) no change

24 Fragments that start with to and a verb What is to and a verb? What is to and a verb? To and a verb is also known as the infinitive form of a verb. * Remember: If a word group begins with to and a verb, it must contain another verb, or it is not a complete sentence. To and a verb can be the subject of a sentence. Example: To run a complete marathon was my goal.

25 How do you correct fragments that start with to and a verb? Correct a fragment that starts with to and a verb by joining it to the sentence before or after it, or by adding the missing sentence elements. Correct a fragment that starts with to and a verb by joining it to the sentence before or after it, or by adding the missing sentence elements. Sentence followed by a fragment: It was my goal. To run a complete marathon. Corrected sentences: It was my goal to run a complete marathon. It was my goal. I wanted to run a complete marathon.

26 How would you correct this fragment? It was important for me. To run smaller races first. A) It was important for me to run. Smaller races first. B) It was important. For me to run smaller races first. C) It was important for me to run smaller races first. D) no change

27 How would you correct this fragment? It was important for me. To run smaller races first. ANSWER: A) It was important for me to run. Smaller races first. B) It was important. For me to run smaller races first. C) It was important for me to run smaller races first. D) no change

28 Fragments that are examples or explanations This type of sentence fragment can be harder to recognize because there is no single word or kind of word to look for. Sometimes, fragments like this will start with words like especially, for example, like, or such as. Example: I wanted to paint my room a warm color. Like orange or red.

29 How do you correct fragments that are examples or explanations? Correct a fragment that is an example or explanation by adding the missing sentence elements or by joining it to the sentence before or after it. Correct a fragment that is an example or explanation by adding the missing sentence elements or by joining it to the sentence before or after it. Sentence followed by a fragment: I wanted to paint my room a warm color. Like orange or red. Corrected sentences: I wanted to paint my room a warm color. I looked for paint that was orange or red. I wanted to paint my room a warm color like orange or red.

30 How would you correct this fragment? It was not difficult. The choice between paint colors. A) It was not difficult, the choice. Between paint colors. B) It was not difficult. It is easy to make the choice between paint colors. C) It was not difficult, the choice between. Paint colors. D) no change

31 How would you correct this fragment? It was not difficult. The choice between paint colors. ANSWER: A) It was not difficult, the choice. Between paint colors. B) It was not difficult. It is easy to make the choice between paint colors. C) It was not difficult, the choice between. Paint colors. D) no change

32 More to try: How would you correct this fragment? Some people like to move frequently. Finding excitement in a new job in a new town. They enjoy the challenge. A) Some people like to move frequently. Finding excitement in a new job in a new town. They enjoy the challenge. B) Some people like to move frequently, finding excitement in a new job in a new town, they enjoy the challenge. C) Some people like to move frequently, finding excitement in a new job in a new town. They enjoy the challenge. D) no change

33 How would you correct this fragment? Some people like to move frequently. Finding excitement in a new job in a new town. They enjoy the challenge. ANSWER: A) Some people like to move frequently. Finding excitement in a new job in a new town. They enjoy the challenge. B) Some people like to move frequently, finding excitement in a new job in a new town, they enjoy the challenge. C) Some people like to move frequently, finding excitement in a new job in a new town. They enjoy the challenge. D) no change

34 How would you correct this fragment? Moving frequently is not easy. For everyone. A) Moving frequently is not easy for everyone. B) Moving frequently is not easy. For everyone. C) Moving frequently is. Not easy for everyone. D) no change

35 How would you correct this fragment? Moving frequently is not easy. For everyone. ANSWER: A) Moving frequently is not easy for everyone. B) Moving frequently is not easy. For everyone. C) Moving frequently is. Not easy for everyone. D) no change

36 How would you correct this fragment? My sister and I have very different views. About the ideal way to live. Fortunately, we do not have to choose the same kind of life. A) My sister and I have. Very different views about the ideal way to live. Fortunately, we do not have to choose the same kind of life. B) My sister and I have very different views about the ideal way to live. Fortunately, we do not have to choose the same kind of life. C) My sister and I have very different views. About the ideal way to live, fortunately, we do not have to choose the same kind of life. D) no change

37 How would you correct this fragment? My sister and I have very different views. About the ideal way to live. Fortunately, we do not have to choose the same kind of life. ANSWER: A) My sister and I have. Very different views about the ideal way to live. Fortunately, we do not have to choose the same kind of life. B) My sister and I have very different views about the ideal way to live. Fortunately, we do not have to choose the same kind of life. C) My sister and I have very different views. About the ideal way to live, fortunately, we do not have to choose the same kind of life. D) no change


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