Presentation on theme: "Phrases, Clauses, and Sentence Types"— Presentation transcript:
1 Phrases, Clauses, and Sentence Types Sentence StructurePhrases, Clauses, and Sentence Types
2 Independent ClausesAn independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate (verb or verb and object), and expresses a complete thought.An independent clause can be a sentence.Jim studied for his chemistry quiz at Tim Hortons
3 Dependent ClausesA dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought because it has a subordinate conjunction or relative pronoun. The clause might begin with something like “when.”When Jim studied at Tim Hortons for his chemistry quiz(What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.)
4 Subordinating Conjunctions after although as because before even if even though if in order thatonce provided that rather than since so that than that though unlessuntil when whenever where whereas wherever whether while why
5 whose whosever whomever Relative PronounsNote that some relative pronouns, like who, whom, which, etc. can also be the subject of the dependent clausethat which whicheverwho whoever whomwhose whosever whomever
6 PhrasesPhrases are a group of words that do not contain a subject or a predicate verb.The most common phrases in English prepositional phrases (i.e. begins with a preposition).There are 76 English prepositions, including: to, in into, on, onto, across, over, under, up, down, through.Prepositional phrases look like this:To the storeOver the bridgeUnder the tableIn the heat
7 Practice SentencesFind the phrases, dependent clauses and independent clauses in the sentences belowFor each clause, circle the subject, put brackets around the verb, and put brackets under the phrasesWhen Eileen gets angry at her students, she yells andjumps up and down.
8 Practice SentencesFind the phrases, dependent clauses and independent clauses in the sentences belowFor each clause, circle the subject, put brackets around the verb, and put brackets under the phrasesMs Doucet has a short temper, which can be a problem for me.
9 Sentence types There are four major sentence types in English: Simple SentencesCompound SentencesComplex SentencesCompound-Complex SentencesAll are combinations of independent and dependent clauses, plus the phrases associated with those clauses.
10 Simple sentenceSimple sentences are composed of ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE and the PHRASES necessary to the idea expressedI like chocolate.Eileen ran to school.In the heat of the night, Ms Doucet got up for a drink of water.
11 Compound sentencesCompound sentences are sentences that have TWO INDEPENDENT CLAUSES and their associated PHRASES joined by a COORDINATING CONJUNCTION.Coordinating conjunctions include: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (acronym – FANBOYS)I love chocolate yet I hate chocolate-covered almonds.Mr. Zohar rides his bike to school and Mr. McNaughton drives.
12 Complex SentencesComplex sentences include ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE and ONE DEPENDENT CLAUSE and their associated phrases.If you come over early, we can have lunch first.When my grandmother baked gingerbread cookies for us to take home, my sister and I used to throw them out of the car window on the 401.
13 Complex-compound sentences Just as the name implies, a complex-compound sentence is the combination of ONE DEPENDENT CLAUSE with a COMPOUND SENTENCE (two INDEPENDENT CLAUSES joined by a COORDINATING CONJUNCTION) and their associated PHRASES.This is the longest type of sentence that can be formed in English. Adding more clauses will result in sentence errors.When I go to Montreal, I visit my family and I go to Schwartz’s for a smoked meat sandwich.
14 Sentence errorsIf you create a sentence that does not fit one of these paradigms, you have probably created a sentence error.Sentence errors include:Sentence FragmentsComma SplicesRun-on SentencesFused Sentences
15 Sentence fragmentsA sentence fragment is any group of words that has a capital at the beginning and a period at the end that does not contain a subject and a predicate and which does not form a complete thought.Two commons causes of sentence fragments:Phrases meant to be attached to the previous sentence are written as their own sentencesDependent clauses are written as their own sentencesE.g. “Like the three little pigs and Little Red Riding Hood.”E.g. “Which Eileen told them not to do.”
16 Run-on sentencesA run-on sentence is one in which two or more independent clauses are joined inappropriately.The term “Run-on Sentence” includes both comma splices and fused sentences.Often this term is used more specifically for sentences that have three or more independent clauses joined by conjunctions.E.g. “I like ice cream so I went to the store to buy some, but the store didn’t have any left, so I had had to take the bus to the mall to get some, and then I was late for work.”FIX: I like ice cream and went to the store to get some; however, the store was out of chocolate ice cream, so I had to go to the mall. After all the running around I did, I was late for work.”
17 Comma splicesA comma splice is the joining of two independent clauses with a comma. (Note: splice = join)In some languages, like Spanish, this is perfectly acceptable, but in English it is not.In English sentences must be joined by conjunctions, semi-colons, or colons.E.g. “I like chocolate ice cream, I eat it every other day.”FIX: “I like chocolate ice cream; I eat it every other day.”FIX: “I like chocolate ice cream, so I eat it every other day.”FIX: “Because I like chocolate ice cream, I eat it every other day.”
18 Fused sentencesFused sentences are ones that include more than one independent clause but which have no punctuation or conjunctions at all.This error can be corrected using the same strategies that are used to correct comma splices.E.g. “I like ice cream I eat it every other day.”FIX: “I like ice cream, so I eat it every other day.”
19 Can you spot the error(s)? Ms Doucet’s class is the best, I always learn something from her.ERROR: Comma Splice
20 Can you spot the error(s)? Eileen is tall enough to reach the top shelf I don’t think you are.ERROR: Fused Sentence
21 Can you spot the error(s)? A long time ago in a country far, far away.ERROR: Sentence Fragment
22 Can you spot the error(s)? Although I wanted to come to the party, I could not make it, I had to go to my grandmother’s house.ERROR: Comma Splice
23 Can you spot the error(s)? The dog ate my homework and my little sister flushed my cell phone down the toilet and my bus pass disappeared, I was having a bad day.ERRORS: Run-on Sentence and Comma Splice