6 Sentence A sentence is a complete thought. It consists of a subject and predicate.The predicate is the verb and everything that follows it.A sentence is also an independent clause.
7 ? How can a dependent clause have a subject and verb yet not express a complete thought?
8 Two Types of ClausesIndependent Clauses can stand alone as complete thoughts.Dependent Clauses cannot stand alone, and they depend on another word groupIn the sentence (an independent clause)to complete meaning.
9 Subordinators Two groups of words CREATE dependence or subordination: Subordinating ConjunctionsandRelative Pronouns.These two groups of words create DEPENDENT CLAUSES!
10 ExamplesExamples of SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS & the meanings they express:Time: when, sinceReason: because, since, asResult: that, so thatCondition: if, unlessContrast: although, whereasLocation: where, whereverChoice: whether, thanSUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS (and relative pronouns)CREATE DEPENDENT CLAUSES!See your text for a complete list of SUBORDINATORS!
11 “BISAWAWE” is a memory tool for a few subordinating conjunctions BecauseIfSo thatAfterWhenAlthoughWhileEven though
12 More subordinatorsAnother group of words that create dependent or subordinating clauses is calledRELATIVE PRONOUNS.EXAMPLES:Who, which, that, whom, whoever
13 Examples If the bond issue passes, the city will install new sewers. In the above sentence, the underlined clause is dependent or subordinate.The bold clause is the independent clause which could stand alone:The city will install new sewers.
14 Coordinating Conjunctions connect“equal” orindependent clauseswith a comma precedingthe conjunction.
16 Examples of Coordinating Conjunctions Connecting Independent Clauses The sky turned gray, and it rained.Two independent Clauses:The sky turned gray.It rained.I left early, yet I was late for class.I left early.I was late for class.
17 TRANSITIONSMost transition words or phrasesAreCONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS.
18 Addition: also, furthermore, moreover, besides Conjunctive Adverbs (Several are also known as transition-words) and the Relationships They ExpressAddition: also, furthermore, moreover, besidesContrast: however, still, nevertheless, conversely, nevertheless, instead, otherwiseComparison: similarly, likewiseResult or Summary: therefore, thus, consequently, accordingly, hence, thenTime: next, then, meanwhile, finally, subsequently, indeed, certainly
19 THE PATTERN:Independent Clause/Semicolon/Conjunctive Adverb/Comma/Independent Clause
21 Examples— I am overweight; therefore, I should exercise more. Independent Clause/Semicolon/Conjunctive Adverb/Comma/Independent ClauseExamples—I am overweight; therefore, I should exercise more.I enjoy swimming; however, I don’t get to swim often.