Presentation on theme: "1.3. Passivization of ditransitive verbs Verbs which take two objects (direct and indirect) in principle have two passive counterparts, with the possibility."— Presentation transcript:
1.3. Passivization of ditransitive verbs Verbs which take two objects (direct and indirect) in principle have two passive counterparts, with the possibility of passivizing both direct and indirect objects. i. a. My father gave this watch to me. b. This watch was given to me by my father. ii. a. My father gave me this watch. b. I was given this watch by my father. Notice that if the direct object is passivized, the indirect one should occur in the prepositional phrase to + NP
1.4. Prepositional passives In the sentences in  we can see that the passivized NP does not have to be the object of the verb: a. My mother approved of the plan. b. The plan was approved of by my mother. a. The organizers seem to have lost sight of the main goal. b. The main goal seems to have been lost sight of. a. Someone has slept in this bed. b. This bed has been slept in. The preposition in the [b] examples is stranded, similar to preposition stranding in questions (Which bed did you sleep in?).
1.6. Infinitive constructions after passive verbs In sentences below, with one of the following verbs: acknowledge, assume, believe, claim, consider, estimate, feel, find, know, presume, report, say, think, understand, etc. there are two possibilities for passivization: People consider/know/think that he is a good man. The corresponding passive forms are as follows: i. It is considered/known/thought that he is a good man. ii. He is considered/known/thought to be a good man.
PAGE 53 – exercise 7 (a-d) a) Who stole the paintings? Who were the paintings stolen by? (By whom were the paintings stolen?) b) The government has already closed down several coal-mines Several coal mines have already been closed down by the government. c) They had to make plans for extra places in schools in the 1970s. Plans for extra places in schools had to be made in the 1970s. d) Various charities are giving large sums of money to the refugee fund. (TWO POSSIBILITES) 1: Large sums of money are being given to the refugee fund by various charities. 2: The refugee fund is being given large sums of money by various charities.
PAGE 53 – exercise 7 (e-i) e) How did he offend John? How was John offended? f) People think that she died in a plane crash. (TWO POSSIBILITES) 1: It is thought that she died in a plane crash. 2: She is thought to have died in a plane crash. g) A drunken motorist knocked her down. She was knocked down by a drunken motorist. h) Those at work must pay for the welfare benefits in this country. Welfare benefits in this country must be paid FOR by those at work. i) We have given the first scheme our approval. (TWO POSS.) 1: The first scheme has been given our approval. 2: Our approval has been given TO the first scheme.
PAGE 53 – exercise 7 (j-m) j) They believe the senator is well over seventy (2 POSSIBILITES). 1: The senator is believed to be well over seventy. 2: It is believed (that) the senator is well over seventy. k) They made me give details of my bank accounts. I was made TO give details of my bank accounts. no letter) They are going to cut her salary. Her salary is going to be cut. l) I would like you to measure me for a suit. I would like to be measured for a suit. m) We know that your companion has always been a troublemaker. (TWO POSS.) 1: It is known that your companion has always been a trouble... 2: Your companion is known to have always been a trouble…
PAGE 53 – exercise 7 (n-r) n) They were driving cattle into the trucks. Cattle were being driven into the trucks. o) We have argued about this question for too long. This question has been argued about for too long. p) I dont like people staring at me like that. I dont like being stared at like that. q) He is not the candidate we voted for. He is not the candidate (who was) voted for. r) They have not yet entered into serious negotiations. Serious negotiations have not yet been entered into.
PAGE 53 – exercise 7 (s-w) s) Is anybody attending to you? Are you being attended to (by anyone)? t) I shall bring up this question at our next meeting. This question will be brought up at our next meeting. u) They considered Mr Smith was one of their best workers in those days (TWO POSSIBILITIES). 1: Mr Smith was considered (to be) one of their best... 2: It was considered that Mr Smith was one of their best... v) Wed better see to the car or we will have an accident. The car had better be seen to or we will have an accident. w) They seem to have looked after the house quite well. The house seems to have been looked after quite well.
PAGE 53 – exercise 7 (x-bb) x) Why are people always laughing at me? Why am I always being laughed at? y) They are holding three hostages. Three hostages are being held. z) Nobody could beat him ten years ago. He could not be beaten (by anybody) ten years ago. aa) Mary told me that somebody had attacked and robbed her in the street. I was told by Mary that she had been attacked and robbed in the street. bb) Police are looking for the missing boy. They cant find him anywhere. The missing boy is being looked for by the police. He cant be found anywhere.
PAGE 53 – exercise 7 (cc-ee) cc) They must have postponed the match due to bad weather. The match must have been postponed due to bad weather. dd) We expect that the government will lose the election (2 poss.). 1: The government is expected to lose the election. 2: It is expected that the government will lose the election. 3: It is expected that the election will be lost by the g…. ee) They report that the police recaptured the fugitive in a local pub. (4 possibilities) 1: It is reported that the police recaptured the fugitive in... 2: The police are reported to have recaptured the fugitive in... 3: It is reported that the fugitive was recaptured by the police… 4: The fugitive is reported to have been recaptured by the police in a local pub.
PAGE 55 – exercise 8 (a & b & c) a) Mr. Smith cant use his office at the moment. (it / redecorate) It is being redecorated. b) Wheres the car? Oh, dear! (it / steal) It seems to have been stolen. / It must have been stolen. c) Your room looks different (you / paint / it / since I was last here) Have you had it painted since I was last here.
PAGE 55 – exercise 8 (d & ) d) Did anybody call an ambulance to the scene of the accident. Yes. (nobody / injure / so it /not / need) Nobody was injured, so it wasnt needed. e) A tree was lying across the road. (it / blow down / in the storm) It must have been blown down in the storm. It had been blown down in the storm.
PAGE 55/56 – exercise 9 (a - c) a) The speed limit is to be introduced gradually. The authorities are to introduce the speed limit gradually. b) Byron is said to have lived on vinegar and potatoes. They (people) say (that) Byron lived on vinegar and potatoes. c) Someone will have to be found to take her place. They will have to find someone to take her place.
PAGE 56 – exercise 9 (d - g) d) The rumor must have been started by our opponents. Our opponents must have started this rumor. e) Why wasnt the car either locked or put into the garage? Why didnt you either lock the car or put it into the garage? f) Your money could be put to good use instead of being left idle in a bank. You could put your money to good use instead of leaving it idle in a bank. g) Im not used to being treated like that (by other people). Other people dont usually treat me like that.
PAGE 56 – exercise 10 (a) Last year I was overtaxed and I am now owed a lot of money. I think that until I am refunded, I should be paid interest on it, dont you? Income tax should be done away with altogether.
PAGE 56 – exercise 10 (b) During the war, our letters used to be opened and censored. We were told, of course, that our personal affairs would never be disclosed or discussed by the censors.
PAGE 56 – exercise 10 (c) It has been know for some time that if young domestic animals are fed with penicillin their growth rate is significantly increased.
PAGE 56 – exercise 10 (d) I was taught a Finnish song without being told what it really meant.
PAGE 56 – exercise 11 (a-d) IS SAID TO BE A WORK ADDICT. IS KNOWN FOR CERTAIN TO HAVE BEEN AT THE MEETING. WAS SUPPOED TO BE WAITING FOR THEM OUTSIDE. SHOULD HAVE BEEN MADE TO PAY THE EXTRA COST HIMSELF.
PAGE 56 – exercise 11 (e-g) NOT TO BE SEEN ANYWHERE / NOWHERE TO BE SEEN. IS THOUGHT TO HAVE BEEN LYING ON THE BOTTOM OF… ARE RUMORED TO BE UNHAPPY.
PAGE 57 – exercise 12 (a,b & c) CAUSATIVE HAVE: S + HAVE + Od + Ved2 (+ by …) a) I never find time to clean the car myself, so I _________________ (clean) regularly. b) Did you decorate the rooms yourselves? No, we _______________________(decorate). c) Tom thinks his eyesight is getting worse, so hes going to the optician. Hes going to ____________________________(eyes / test) HAVE IT CLEANED HAD THEM DECORATED HAVE HIS EYES TESTED
PAGE 57 – exercise 12 (d & e) CAUSATIVE HAVE: S + HAVE + Od + Ved2 (+ by …) d) What is she doing at the dentists at the moment? She ___________________________ (teeth / fill). e) His watch is now working because he _____________________________(repair). Tom thinks his eyesight is getting worse, so hes going to the optician. Hes going to ____________________________(eyes / test) IS HAVING HER TEETH FILLED HAS HAD IT REPAIRED