modal auxiliary verbs So, can, can’t, may, must, mustn’t, needn’t, have to and don’t have to are extra words that go before verbs. They change the meaning of the verb – they modify it. So we call them modal auxiliaries or modals.
Look at the meanings in the centre. Connect each modal and its meaning.
Now put the correct modal into the space under each picture.
Think about the meaning of can and may. can (ability)can’t (lack of ability) can (permission) can’t (no permission) may/may not (possibility) In the following slide choose either can, can’t, may or may not for each space. If more than one is possible, choose the most likely.
1. I’m not sure about my hair. I ___ get it cut really short. 2. You ___ drive on the right in Britain. 3. You’re free tomorrow? OK, ___ I meet you for lunch? 4. Ask him to speak slower. I ___ understand what he’s saying. 5. You ___ like what he says but listen to him anyway. 6. What a great voice! Mary ___ really sing! 7. Yes Ok, you ___ park your car round the back.
9. Billy ___ swim like a fish but he just plays on the beach. 10. Mum – Dad says I ___ stay up and watch the film. Is that OK? 11. It’s an interesting theory but it ___ be wrong.
must or have to must (internal obligation) Something you think you have to do or someone else has to do. have to (external obligation) Something another person has told you or someone else to do.
Write either must or have to in each space. 1. I’m sorry – I ___ go. I’ve got a meeting. 2. You ___ remember to phone your brother. 3. I really ___ tidy up the garden sometime. 4. The doctor says I ___ take more exercise. 5. If you ___ smoke, please do it outside. 6. The teacher says we ___ do the homework for tomorrow. 7. He ___ see a dentist. He’s got terrible toothache.
8. My mother ___ take pills for her blood pressure. 9. I ___ see the dentist today. She’s given me an appointment at 3 o’clock. 10. You ___ do something about your hair – it’s awful.
mustn’t, needn’t or not have to? mustn’t(prohibition) needn’t (no necessity) don’t have to(no obligation) Remember that needn’t and don’t have to are very similar in meaning – so you can decide which to use.
Write either mustn’t, needn’t or the correct form of don’t have to in each of the spaces below 1. You ___ be so angry. I didn’t mean to break it. 2. You ___ tell me the details. I know how bad he is. 3. Jimmy – you really ___ speak like that to your mother. 4. Tell them they ___ stand up. The President is very informal. 5. You ___ bring mobile phones into the exam room.
6. He ___ tell Mary – she already knows. 7. Here’s a list of things you ___ bring into the country. 8. You ___ come crying to me. I told you he was no good. 9. You ___ ride a motorcycle without a helmet. 10. Workers ___ leave this office before 4.45.
Correct questions. Two of these sentences are wrong. Which two and why? 1. Can I come in? 2. Must she pay for this? 3. Do I can borrow your pen? 4. Do we must arrive before 9.00? 5. Do they have to fill in this form?