3USED WHEN THE FOCUS IS ON THE ACTION USED WHEN THE FOCUS IS ON THE ACTION. WE DON’T KNOWN OR IT’S NOT IMPORTANT WHO OR WHAT IS PERFORMING THE ACTIONEx:My bike was stolenFocus on the actionDon’t know who stole the bicycle*If we want to say who or what causes the action, we use by.
4SOMETIMES, IT’S MORE POLITE TO USE PASIVE INSTEAD OF ACTIVE Ex:A mistake was madeInstead of saying “You made a mistake”, we don’t blame anyone
5DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ACTIVE AND PASIVE When we use an active verb, we say what the subject does:My grandfather was a builder. He built this house in 1935.It’s a big company. It employs two hundred people.When we use a passive verb, we say what happens to the subject:This house is quite old. It was built in 1935.Two hundred people are employed by the company.
6Be (is/was etc.) + past participle (done/cleaned/seen etc.) form:Be (is/was etc.) + past participle (done/cleaned/seen etc.)The objective of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentenceThe subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive one (or it’s eliminated)
8present ACTIVE PASSIVE I write a letter A letter is written by me PRESENT SIMPLEI write a letterHe writes two lettersPRESENT CONTINOUSSomebody is cleaning the room at the momentPASSIVEPRESENT SIMPLEA letter is written by meTwo letters are written by himPRESENT CONTINOUSThe room is being cleaned at the moment
9PAST ACTIVE PASSIVE I wrote a letter A letter was written by me PAST SIMPLEI wrote a letterPAST CONTINOUSSomebody was cleaning the room when I arrivedPASSIVEPAST SIMPLEA letter was written by mePAST CONTINOUSThe room was being cleaned when I arrived
10PERFECT TENSES ACTIVE PASSIVE I have written a letter PRESENT PERFECTI have written a letterPAST PERFECTI had written a letterPASSIVEPRESENT PERFECTA letter has been written by mePAST PERFECTA letter had been written by me
11FUTURE SIMPLE (WILL) AND OTHER MODAL VERBS ACTIVEPASSIVEI will write a letterI can write a letterI could write a letterI may write a letterI might write a letterI should write a letterI must write a letterI have to write a letterI ought to write a letterA letter will be writtenA letter can be writtenA letter could be writtenA letter may be writtenA letter might be writtenA letter should be writtenA letter must be writtenA letter has to be writtenA letter ought to be written
12BE GOING TO A letter is going to be written PASSIVEA letter is going to be writtenACTIVEI’m going to write a letter
13I DON’T LIKE BEING…The passive of doing/seeing etc. is being done/being seen etc. Active: I don’t like people telling me what to do. Passive: I don’t like being told what to do. Steve hates being kept waiting.
14We use get… You can use get instead of be in the passive: There was a fight at the party, but nobody got hurt.I’m surprised Liz didn’t get offered the jobYou can’t use get when things don’t happen:Jill is liked by everybodyVery little was known about himUsed mainly in informal spoken English. Some expressions:Get marriedGet dressedGet lostGet changed
15REPORTING INFORMATION We can use the passive form of reporting verbs to give ideas or opinions without saying exactly where the ideas come from.REPORTING INFORMATION
16Verbs typically used in the passive voice for this purpose include: Assume-Believe-claim-Consider-feel-hope-report-say-think.We can use it + passive (that)+ active clause, where it is the impersonal pronoun that does not refer to a real subject (like in It’s raining)It is said (that) most computer users are womenIt is thought (that) most computer users surf the net.We can use passive + t + infinitive.Most computer users are said to be women.We can use there + passive + to + infinitive (usually be).There are believed to be more than 600 species of trees per hectare in tropical rain forests.We can use passive + perfect infinitive, which indicates that the event has already occurredThe president is known to have been involved in the incident.
18To have/get something done Subject +have/get + object + past participle. We use this construction to say that the subject arranges for something to be done by someone else.The same construction is used to say that something is done to a person or thing belonging to the subject of have/get.Although both structures can be used in the above examples, there are some differences in meaning when using have/get something done.
19We use have something done to imply that the subject of the sentence is not responsible for or has no control over what it happensI had my passport stolen while I was awayShe had her wisdom teeth taken out last year.However, get can also be used in sentences like these in informal spoken English. We also tend to use have to focus on the result of an action.I will have the report finished by tomorrow morningWe use get something done to imply that the subject of the sentence causes something to happen (perhaps accidentally) or they are to blame for it.I will get the letters sent out to you first class
20Won’t haveWon’t have + object + present participle/past participle. This can be used to say that we will not allow someone to do something, or something to happen. I won’t have you watching TV all day. She won’t have her holiday ruined by them.
21WANT IT DONEWant + object + past participle. This can be used to say that we would like someone to do something or we would like something to happen. I want the report finished by next Monday. Put your car in my garage. We don’t want it damaged in the street.