Presentation on theme: "Understanding Challenging Behavior"— Presentation transcript:
1Understanding Challenging Behavior SESSION 3Amy Leishear, Elementary Behavior SpecialistTerri Bednarik, Elementary Low Incidence SpecialistAimee Meyer, Elementary Behavior SpecialistWelcome to the third and final session of “Understanding Challenging Behavior”.
2Why is it important to use preventative strategies with students? AACPS Division of Special Education Para-educator Training Videos Pre AssessmentName:School:Date:Why is it important to use preventative strategies with students?What does BIP stand for?True or False; The child should be involved with the creation of the BIP?What is a replacement skill?How often is a BIP reviewed?
3The Big PictureDiscuss the process of developing a Behavior Intervention Plan which includes reinforcement schedules, prevention strategies and response strategiesIdentify best practices for the implementation of a Behavior Intervention Plan.In this session we will:Discuss the process of developing a Behavior Intervention Plan which includes reinforcement schedules, prevention strategies and response strategiesIdentify best practices for the implementation of a Behavior Intervention Plan.
4FBA/BIP Steps Overview Define the Interfering BehaviorCollect Baseline Data & Identify Antecedents/ConsequencesDevelop a Hypothesis or Summary StatementDevelop a BIP, including Reinforcement Schedules, Prevention Strategies and Response StrategiesImplement BIPModify Program as NeededThis is an overview of the steps necessary for a team to complete an FBA/BIP. The first three steps were discussed in session two. Now we will discuss steps four through 6.After the interfering behavior has been defined, baseline data collected and analyzed and a hypothesis statement developed:Your team should identify appropriate reinforcers to use when the student demonstrates more appropriate behavior. A good plan will consider strategies to prevent and respond to interfering behaviors.Once a solid behavior intervention plan is developed, your team should consider how to insure consistent implementation, including staff training; planned monitoring; and ongoing analysis/data monitoring.Finally, ongoing evaluation will highlight the need for modifications that may be necessary.We will describe each of these steps in more detail on the next few slides.
5FBA/BIP Step 4:Select strategies that address the impact of the setting, triggers, and consequences which maintain the problem behaviorSelect behavioral teaching strategies for replacement behaviorsDevelop scripts/routines for implementation and identify responsibilities of staffDevelop an emergency crisis intervention plan if neededWhen identifying strategies for the behavior intervention plan, select strategies that address the impact of the setting, triggers, and consequences which maintain the problem behavior. Also, select behavioral teaching strategies for replacement behaviors. This will be covered in more detail later in this presentation. Develop scripts and routines for implementation so that the plan is being implemented consistently and with fidelity and identify staff responsibilities. Lastly, develop an emergency crisis intervention plan if needed.
6FBA/BIP Step 4 (continued) Develop a BIP: ReinforcementSchedulesReinforcement is the most important part of any behavior plan.Reinforcement should be specific to the student. What is reinforcing to one person may not be to another.Reinforcement should match the function.Developing a behavior intervention plan includes determining reinforcement schedules, prevention strategies and response strategies.Reinforcement is the most important variable in any behavior intervention plan. If reinforcement is not used effectively all other areas of the plan will not work.Reinforcement should be specific to each student. Most people are not motivated by the same things. We want the reinforcement to be highly motivating and preferred by the student, not just liked. If a student could do without the reinforcer, it is not really a reinforcer.The reinforcement should match the function of the interfering behavior. The goal of a BIP is to have students achieve what they want for appropriate behavior rather than for displaying interfering behavior. Refer to the behavior guide for a list of age appropriate reinforcers, but remember to really think about the individual when selecting powerful reinforcers.
7FBA Step 4 (continued) Develop a BIP: Reinforcement Schedules Reinforcement should be isolated and only used to reinforce the replacement behavior.Reinforcement should be scheduled.The reward should match the task.Reinforcement should be something that can be isolated and only available to the student if and when the replacement behavior is displayed. If a student has access to the reinforcer at any other time, then he or she will be less motivated to display the replacement behaviors. Students are not inclined to work for a reward they can get for free.Reinforcement should also be scheduled. This means that the student must display a certain amount of the replacement behavior in order to earn the reinforcer. The whole idea of a reinforcement schedule is to provide positive feedback to students when they are demonstrating the preferred behaviors, rather than an interfering behavior.Another important consideration when developing a reinforcement schedule is that the reward should match the task. If a student is on a very frequent reinforcement schedule, for example, every five minutes, the reinforcers can be small, such as a verbal or non-verbal praise, or a small tangible item, such as a sticker. If a student is on a daily or weekly schedule, the reinforcer should be larger or more involved, such as 30 minutes with a preferred teacher or activity.One concern that is raised about reinforcing students, that it is bribery. However, there is a difference. Bribery is when a reinforcer is given after interfering behavior occurs in an attempt to stop the behavior; reinforcement is given after a replacement, or desired, behavior occurs at the appropriate time. Bribery is not an agreed upon, planned intervention and actually increases the likelihood the interfering behaviors will persist. Reinforcement increases the likelihood that the more desirable, replacement behavior will occur again.
8FBA/BIP Step 4 (continued) Develop a BIP: Prevention StrategiesThings that we as staff can do to proactively prevent opportunities for challenging behavior to occur.Basic prevention strategies include, but are not limited to:appropriate supervisionquality instructionclear and reasonable expectations/proceduresactively involving studentssupportive classroom environment.Sometimes we are able to identify the best prevention strategies following an incident of challenging behavior.Prevention strategies are things that we as staff can do to proactively prevent opportunities for challenging behavior to occur.Basic prevention strategies include, but are not limited to:appropriate supervisionquality instructionclear and reasonable expectations/proceduresactively involving studentssupportive classroom environment.Sometimes we are able to identify the best prevention strategies following an incident of challenging behavior.
9FBA/BIP Step 4 (continued) Develop a BIP: Prevention StrategiesClassroom modifications may include: sitting in a specific seat, break options, visual supports, reinforcement program, extra attention, prompting, controlled choices, redirection, free time activities, etc.Preventative strategies are an integral part of every classroom for all students, including those with and without interfering behaviors. These may include visual schedules and organizers outlining daily activities, interactive instructional materials, a clean and organized learning space, positive interactions, redirection, classroom or school wide reward system, controlled choices, structured free or group lessons, and assigned seating when needed. Other preventative strategies that may have to be added for students who display interfering behaviors include break options, individualized reinforcement programs, specific prompting protocols and separate work spaces within the classroom.
10FBA/BIP Step 4 (continued) Develop a BIP: Response StrategiesProvide a clear outline/script for staff to follow when responding to target behaviors that does not contradict the identified functions.Response strategies are specific interventions, outlined in the Behavior Intervention Plan. It is important for response strategies to be written clearly so that all staff members respond the same way. If there are inconsistencies in how response strategies are applied, the student’s behavior is likely to increase and become more intense. Response strategies should not contradict the identified functions of the target behavior.
11FBA/BIP Step 4 (continued) Interventions need to be …feasible and appropriateobservable and measurableappropriate to setting and ageFor example:Sensory activitiesSocial storiesPraiseSticker chartsVisual remindersVerbal remindersEarned privilegesTangible rewards……..Interventions chosen for a Behavior Intervention Plan need to be feasible and appropriate, observable and measurable, appropriate to the setting and the students age. Some examples of proactive interventions include sensory activities, social stories, praise, sticker charts, visual or verbal reminders and earned privileges or tangible rewards.
12FBA/BIP Step 4 (continued) Teaching Replacement SkillsWe need to teach students what behaviors are appropriate and those behaviors must serve the need the student is seeking to fulfill.We need to teach, often times explicitly, what he/she should be doing instead of the behavior in concern. For example, social stories, scripts, visual supports.Break down expected behaviors into smaller parts and provide explicit instructionReinforce demonstration or attempts to demonstrate the replacement behavior.Assist the student in generalizing the behaviors across setting and with different people.We spend a great deal of time discussing interfering behaviors, however; we need to also be thinking about what types of skills or behaviors the student should be displaying. We need to teach students what behaviors are appropriate and those behaviors must serve the need the student is seeking to fulfill.We need to teach, often times explicitly, what he or she should be doing instead of the interfering behavior. Social stories, scripts, and visual supports are just a few examples of strategies we can use to accomplish this. It is important to break down expected behaviors into smaller parts and provide students with explicit instruction each step of the way. Be sure to reinforce attempts to demonstrate, or the demonstration of, the replacement behavior and assist the student in generalizing the behaviors across setting and with different people.
13Step 5 BIP Implementation Staff Training Observation of Plan ImplementationData Analysis: Compare baseline data with treatment dataWhen the FBA is complete and the BIP has been written, one individual in your school should be identified to facilitate communication, monitor data collection/progress, and ensure consistent implementation. However, all team members must understand all parts of the FBA and the written BIP, including how to collect data. After the plan has been implemented for a few weeks, there should be follow-up observations of the plan’s implementation, including consistency of implementation amongst staff. No changes should be made to a BIP unless all team members are aware of the changes. It is imperative that all changes to the plan be documented and communicated to the team. Following consistent implementation, data should be analyzed and compared to baseline data.
14FBA/BIP Step 5 (continued) Frequency of Plan ReviewProgress should be reviewed quarterly or on an as needed basisCoincides with Report Card reviews, IEP ReviewsProvide information from BIP reviews to the parent or family consistentlyBehavior intervention plans need to be reviewed quarterly or on an as needed basis to determine the level of effectiveness. Reviews of plans often coincide with report card distribution or quarterly IEP reviews. A review may need to occur more frequently if the supports in place are not helping the student to be more successful. Behavior intervention plan reviews need to be provided in writing to the family consistently.
15FBA/BIP Step 5 (continued) Considerations for Evaluation of the planEvaluation methods should be easy to useFactors to be evaluated must be observableCriteria needs to unambiguous (clear and trackable)Criteria must be directly related to the targeted behaviorProgress monitoring should occur across settings and at a variety of times throughout the dayOngoing evaluation of the effectiveness of the plan is essential. When planning evaluation methods, it is important to consider the following:Evaluation methods should be easy to use,The factors to be evaluated must be observable,The established criteria must be unambiguous (clear and measurable),The criteria must also be directly related to the targeted behavior; and,Progress monitoring should occur across settings and at a variety of times throughout the day.
16Step 6 Modify Program if Needed Should follow consistent BIP implementation and analysis of the data.Meet as a team and include all staff in the discussion before modifications are implemented.Program modifications are almost always needed as a normal part of the behavioral programming process. Changes should only be made after consistent implementation, for an appropriate amount of time, to really see the effects of the current interventions. Ongoing data collection is essential and illustrates the need for modifications. Analysis of the data should guide decisions about when, where and how program modifications are needed. Program changes should be made in consultation with team members and implemented when all staff have been made aware of the changes. If changes to the plan are made by one member only, without full team’s knowledge, it can negatively impact the quality and usefulness of the data, and the inconsistent implementation can even lead to an increase in the interfering behaviors.
17Why Do Interventions Fail? Inadequate data for decision makingOutcome objectives not measurableLow quality planInconsistent implementation of planLack of regular & sustained monitoringInadequate support for implementersFailure to implement/adopt function-based approachInterventions may not always prove to be effective. Some of the reasons that interventions fail include:Inadequate data for decision makingOutcome objectives not measurableLow quality planInconsistent implementation of planLack of regular & sustained monitoringInadequate support for implementersFailure to implement/adopt function-based approach
18The Big PictureDiscuss the process of developing a Behavior Intervention Plan which includes reinforcement schedules, prevention strategies and response strategiesIdentify best practices for the implementation of a Behavior Intervention Plan.In this session we have:Discussed the process of developing a Behavior Intervention Plan which includes reinforcement schedules, prevention strategies and response strategies; andIdentified some best practices for the implementation of a Behavior Intervention Plan.We hope that these sessions have given you a greater understanding of challenging behavior and how adults can support students in their efforts to succeed through the use of Functional Behavior Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans. Thank you for your participation.
19When developing a BIP, what three components should be included? AACPS Division of Special Education Para-educator Training Videos Pre and Post AssessmentName:School:Date:When developing a BIP, what three components should be included?What is a prevention strategy?What is a response strategy?Interventions need to be _________and________, _________and_______, ___________and _________.List at least three things that must be kept in mind when reporting progress to the parent/family.