Presentation on theme: "Basic FBA to BSP: Module 5: Selecting Function-based Behavior Support Strategies Chris Borgmeier PhD Portland State University firstname.lastname@example.org www.tier2pbis.pbworks.com."— Presentation transcript:
1 Basic FBA to BSP:Module 5: Selecting Function-based Behavior Support StrategiesChris Borgmeier PhDPortland State University
2 Adapt BSP and implementation as needed based on on-going monitoring The Basic FBA to BSP Process1. Define the Problem Behavior2. Conduct assessment for behavior support planninga. Functional Behavioral Assessment• Defining behavior in observable & measureable terms• Ask staff and student about where, when, & why behavior occurs• See the behavior during specified routines• Hypothesize a final summary of where, when, & why behavior occurs3. Design an individualized behavior support plan (BSP)• Ensure technical adequacy• Ensure contextual fit4. Ensure Fidelity of Implementation5. Monitor Plan Impact on Student BehaviorAdapt BSP and implementation as needed based on on-going monitoringAdapted from Horner, Albin, Todd, Newton & Sprague, 2011
3 Basic FBA to BSP Training Series Module 1- Defining & Understanding BehaviorModule 2- FBA: Practice InterviewingModule 3- FBA: Practice ObservingModule 4- Critical Features of BSPModule 5- Building BSP from FBAModule 6- Implementation & EvaluationModule 7- Leading a BSP Team
4 Basic vs. Complex FBA/BSP Focus of this training seriesBasicComplexFor:Students with mild to moderate problem behaviors (behaviors that are NOT dangerous or occurring in many settings)Students with moderate to severe behavioral problems; may be dangerous and/or occurring in many settingsWhat:Relatively Simple and Efficient process for behavior support planning based on “practical” FBA dataTime-intensive process that involves emergency planning, family-centered planning, and collaboration with outside agenciesDeveloped by whom:Team of school-based professionals (e.g., PBS team members whose job responsibilities include FBA and behavior support planning)School-based team including professionals trained to develop and implement intensive interventions for students with severe problem behaviors (e.g., behavior specialist)How typical school team members can develop Relatively simple and efficient behavior support plans for student with mild to moderate444
5 Module 5 ObjectivesBy the end of this Module Team Leaders will be able to:1. Explain the differences between the Alternative/Replacement Behavior and the Desired Behavior2. Describe the different types of behavior support strategies/ interventions that must be included as part of the BSP3. Discriminate between function-based and non-function-based teaching and antecedent strategies4. Identify function-based strategies for rewarding replacement/desired behavior AND minimizing the payoff for problem behavior5. Label missing and incorrect components, when provided with sample behavior support plans
9 ReviewWhat are the three essential characteristics of replacement/alternative behavior?Same function as the problem behaviorEasier to do than the problem behaviorSocially acceptable
10 Identifying Appropriate Replacement Behavior During independent reading time in language arts, Audrey makes noises, talks out, and walks around the room. The FBA has shown that this behavior is maintained by adult attention.Which is the best replacement behavior? Why/Why Not?Ask to sit at the teachers desk during readingRaise hand and ask for a breakRequest help/adult attentionAsk for a reward for completing the taskRequest an easier task1. Serve same Function?2. Is it Easier?3. Is it Socially Acceptable?
11 Activity #1 (pg. 5.2)Using the following scenario, identify an appropriate replacement behavior to teach Sally.When Sally is asked to join a reading group, she makes negative self-statements and writes profane language on her assignments. FBA data indicate that this problem behavior is maintained by avoiding having to work with peers.
12 Selecting Function-Based Behavior Support Strategies
13 Why Do We Consider Function? Function-Based Strategiesdirectly address the function of the problem behavior and are expected to improve behaviorNeutral Strategiesunrelated to function of the problem behavior; might be a good behavior management strategy, but may or may not be effective in improving behaviorContraindicated Strategiesprovides access to maintaining consequence following problem behavior and is likely to make the problem worse
14 Function-Based Intervention Strategies Function-Based strategies…DIRECTLY address the function of the problem behavior by:#1. Providing a way to access the maintaining reinforcer by engaging in appropriate behavioror…#2. Preventing access to the reinforcer following problem behavior
15 Identifying Behavior Support Strategies Setting EventStrategiesAntecedentTeaching StrategiesConsequences StrategiesPrevent/Modify“Triggers”/ Promptsfor Alt/DesTeach Replacement / Desired BehaviorReinforce Alt/Des BehaviorResponse to Problem Behavior/Team identifies a range of strategies/ interventions to address:PreventionTeachingConsequencesWe consider the FUNCTION of the problem behavior when selecting these strategies.
17 Setting Events vs. Triggers Setting Events indirectly “set-up” the problem behavior by temporarily altering the value of maintaining consequencesAntecedents occur immediately before and act as “triggers” for problem behaviorBonus Question:What if the FBA information does not specify a setting event??
18 Setting Event Strategies Manipulate AntecedentTeach BehaviorAlter ConsequencesEliminate or Neutralize Setting EventsPrevent/Modify “Triggers”PromptAlt/Des BehaviorTeach Replacement BehaviorTeach Desired Behavior/ Academic/ Social SkillsReinforce Alt/Des BehaviorResponse to Problem Behavior/ Corrective FeedbackThese strategies are designed to:Eliminate identified setting eventsOrBuild in a neutralizing routine to defuse the effects of a setting event
19 Example: Eliminating Setting Events When asked to write in his daily journal in first period, Sam is most likely to engage in escape maintained problem behavior on days that he forgets to take his medication before school.Sam’s team members (including his parents) have decided that Sam will go to the school nurse’s office each morning to take his medication.*By ensuring that Sam takes his medication, the team will be eliminating the setting event.
20 Example: Eliminating Setting Events When asked to transition to a new activity, Charlie sometimes has tantrums (crying, screaming, flopping) that result in adult attention. This is most likely to occur when Charlie has not interacted with an adult for several minutes.Charlie’s team members have decided that she will:Be given a class “job” which will require her to interact with staff frequentlyReceive frequent, intermittent teacher attention for appropriate and neutral behavior
21 Neutralizing Routines Setting EventsAntecedentsBehaviorConsequenceNeutralizing Routines:Diminish the effects of setting events that have already occurredAct as “separating events” that occur between the setting event and the triggering antecedent
22 Example: Neutralizing Routines When asked to complete academic tasks Ramona is more likely to engage in adult attention maintained problem behavior on days when she has a Conflict at Home before school.Ramona’s team has decided to:Build in a morning “check-in” on these days, during which Ramona spends 5-10 minutes talking with a preferred adult before going to class.The purpose of this routine is to help neutralize the effects of having the conflict at home.
23 Antecedent Strategies Setting Event StrategiesManipulate AntecedentTeach BehaviorAlter ConsequencesEliminate or Neutralize Setting EventsPrevent/Modify “Triggers”Prompts for Alt/Des BehaviorTeach Replacement BehaviorTeach Desired Behavior/ Academic/ Social SkillsReinforce Alt/Des BehaviorResponse to Problem Behavior/ Corrective FeedbackThese strategies are designed to prevent problem behavior by:1. Eliminating/ Modifying antecedents that “trigger” the behaviorAND2. Prompting Replacement/Desired behavior (pre-correction)
24 Antecedent Strategies: Prompting After the replacement behavior has been taught, Prompts and Pre-corrections are used to support and help remind the student to use replacement/desired behavior.Consider using:Visual promptsPictures, symbols, highlighted text, color-coded materialsVerbal promptsRemind the student to use the replacement response before entering the situation(s) where problem behavior is likelyGestural or model promptsProvide gestural cues to remind student to use the replacement behavior or model the correct behavior before problem behavior occurs
25 Antecedent Strategies: Prompting Example During circle time, when there is a lack of adult attention, Micah gets out of his spot, lays on peers, and grabs the teachers materials to obtain adult attention.As part of his plan, Micah’s team has decided to:Put an outline around Micah’s spot on the carpet and tape a “raise hand” picture on the floor in front of his spot (visual prompts)Model how to “raise hand to get teacher’s attention” on the way to the card (model prompt to precorrect)
26 Antecedent Strategies: Modifying Triggers When identifying preventive antecedent strategies:- Eliminate or alter the antecedent so student will no longer need to use problem behaviorThe BEST antecedent MODIFICATIONS directly address:#1. The identified ANTECEDENT#2. The FUNCTION of the problem behavior
27 Identifying Antecedent Strategies During independent reading time in language arts, when several minutes have passed without teacher attention. Audrey makes noises, talks out, and walks around the room. This behavior is maintained by adult attention.Which is the best antecedent modifying strategy to prevent problem behavior?Have peers remind the student to stay in her seatGive student more time to finish her reading assignmentTeacher will provide frequent praise for reading quietly and staying in her seatAt the beginning of independent reading, explain to the class why it is important to sit quietlyProvide student with readings on preferred topicsAddresses:1.Antecedent? Function?
28 Identifying Antecedent Strategies When Pam is asked to work on long-division problems in math class, she argues, refuses to work, and uses profanity to avoid/escape difficult tasks.Which is the best antecedent modifying strategy to prevent problem behavior?Have student check in with teacher at beginning of classGive student more time to complete the difficult tasksGive student an easier math assignment she can be successful withWarn student she will be sent to office for using profanityAllow student to practice long-division on the computerAddresses:1.Antecedent? Function?
29 Activity #2 (page 5.5)For this example, please describe an appropriate antecedent modification that addresses both the triggering antecedent and the function of the problem behavior?When asked to read independently at his seat, Ronnie makes inappropriate noises and makes faces at peers. Based on the FBA data collected, the team agreed that the function of Ronnie’s behavior is to obtain peer attention.
31 Setting Event Strategies Manipulate Antecedents Teaching strategies help make problem behavior inefficient by teaching:Functionally-equivalent alternative behavior2. New desired skills/behaviorSetting Event StrategiesManipulate AntecedentsTeach BehaviorAlter ConsequencesEliminate or Neutralize Setting EventsPrevent/Modify “Triggers”Prompt Replacement/ Desired BehaviorTeach Replacement BehaviorTeach Desired Behavior/ Academic/ Social SkillsReinforce Alt/Des BehaviorResponse to Problem Behavior/ Corrective Feedback
32 Always Start with the Replacement Behavior Desired BehaviorNatural ConsequenceTargeted RoutineSetting EventAntecedentProblem BehaviorMaintaining ConsequenceReplacement BehaviorYou have already selected a function-based alternative behavior!!!32
33 Setting Event Strategies Manipulate Antecedents Next, teach content/skills needed to support student in achieving the Desired BehaviorSetting Event StrategiesManipulate AntecedentsTeach BehaviorAlter ConsequencesEliminate or Neutralize Setting EventsPrevent/Modify “Triggers”Prompt Alt/Desired BehaviorTeach Replacement BehaviorTeach Desired Behavior/ Academic/ Social SkillsReinforce Alt/Des BehaviorResponse to Problem Behavior/ Corrective FeedbackThis may be something to focus on right away, or only after the student is consistently using the replacement behavior
34 Teaching Strategies: Desired Behavior Common Skill Deficits That Can Lead to Problem Behavior:Academic deficitsAvoiding difficult tasksOrganizational skills deficitsEscape from academic task demandsAvoidance of adult attentionSocial Skills deficitsAttention seekingAvoiding peer attention
35 Teaching Strategies: Desired Behavior (cont’d) To teach desired skills we may need to consider:- Additional assessment to identify specific skill deficits- More focused instruction in class- Appropriate instructional grouping- Additional support and practice at home- Special Education support for academic skill deficits
36 Teaching Desired Behavior: Successive Approximations It is typically necessary to teach approximations of the desired behavior to move from the Replacement Behavior to the Desired Behavior.
37 DexterDesired Behavior: Complete Multi-Digit Math Problems independentlyNatural Consequence:Success on problems, more math tasksApproximation Step #3: Ask for teacher helpAntecedent:Task too difficultAsked to do multi-digit multiplication or division math worksheetsApproximation Step #2:With permission student can cross off 60% of difficult itemsFunction:Escape Difficult Math TasksApproximation Step #1: Ask for break using only 3 break tokens per periodReplacement Behavior: Ask for Break from Difficult Double Digit Tasks
39 These strategies help make problem behavior ineffective by: Maximizing Reinforcement for Replacement & Desired behaviorsAND…2. Minimizing reinforcement for Problem BehaviorSetting Event StrategiesManipulate AntecedentPrevent problem & prompt alternate/desired behaviorTeach BehaviorExplicitly Teach Replacement & Desired BehaviorsAlter ConsequencesReinforce alternate & desired behavior & extinguish negative behaviorEliminate or Neutralize Setting EventsModify/Prevent “Triggers”Prompt Alt/Desired BehaviorTeach Replacement BehaviorTeach Desired Behavior/ Academic/ Social SkillsReinforce Alt/Des BehaviorResponse to Problem Behavior- Redirection-Extinction
40 Consequences: Reinforcing the Replacement Behavior When the student engages in the Replacement behavior, provide the student with an outcome that matches the FUNCTION of the problem behavior.Example:If student raises hand and requests a break from a difficult task quickly respond, by allowing the student to take a break.
41 Consequences: Reinforcing the Replacement Behavior It is extremely important that the Replacement behavior is reinforced:ImmediatelyConsistentlyand…Regularly (MULTIPLE opportunities to practice)This is necessary for the Replacement behavior to successfully compete with the problem behavior.
42 Consequences: Reinforcing Desired Behavior The goal is to ultimately have the student move from the Replacement behavior to the desired behavior.Start with reinforcing REASONABLE approximations of the desired behaviorConsiderations:What is the student currently doing?How does this compare to what we want?Will rewards be delivered often enough to strengthen and maintain behavior?Do we have a powerful reinforcer? Consider FUNCTION!
43 What are REASONABLE Expectations? If the student is currently out of seat and off task for the most of the class period and is not turning in any completed assignments.Probably NOT reasonable to expect:To earn reinforcer, student will be on task for entire class period, and complete all assignments for one week.More reasonable INITIAL goal:Student will: a) be in seat and on task for at least 20 minutes of the class period, and b) turn in assignments that are at least 30% completed for 2 consecutive days.
44 When possible… use consequences for desired behavior that match the FUNCTION of the problem behavior.If the function of behavior is to Gain Peer Attention, for being in her seat and working quietly for 30 minutes the reinforcer might be:15 minutes to work with a peer buddyIf the function of behavior is to Avoid Difficult Tasks, for staying on task and completing over 50% of an assignment the reinforcer could be:a “Free Homework Pass”
45 Reinforcing Replacement/Desired Behavior When Pam is asked to work on long-division problems in math class, she argues, refuses to work, and uses profanity in order to avoid/escape the difficult task. (Alt Behv: ask for easier task.)Reward for alternative behavior serves same function?Which are the best reinforcement strategies (2)?Student earns teacher praise for staying on taskStudent is given an easier task when asks appropriatelyStudent can earn one “free homework pass” after completing all math assignments for three weeksStudent can earn “skip 5 problems” card for each 5 long-division problems completedStudent earns 5 extra recess minutes for completing all worksheet itemsReasonable expectations for desired behavior?
46 Reinforcing Replacement/Desired Behavior During independent seatwork, Ronnie makes inappropriate noises and makes faces at peers. The function of Ronnie’s behavior is to obtain peer attention. (Alt Behv: askto work with peer.)Function?Reasonable expectation?Which are the best reinforcement strategies (2)?Student is allowed to sit by a preferred peer for 15 minutes, if he is quiet and on task during seatwork every day for a weekStudent will receive a “free homework pass” if he has no problem behavior during independent seatworkWhen student is on task with no problem behavior for 15 minutes, he will be allowed to sit at back table and read with a peerStudent is allowed to work with a peer when he makes noises and facesStudent is allowed to work with a peer when asks appropriately
47 Activity #3 (pg. 5.9)Using the following example, please describe how you would maximize rewards for both the Replacement and Desired behaviors.During independent reading time in language arts, Audrey makes noises, talks out, and walks around the room. The FBA has shown that this behavior is maintained by adult attention. (Alt Behv: Ask to work with teacher.)
48 Consequences: Responding to Problem Behavior Responses to Problem Behavior should focus on two things:#1. Redirecting to the Replacement Behavior#2. Extinction of the Problem Behavior
49 Responding to Problem Behavior: Redirection At the earliest signs of problem behavior, quickly redirect to the alternative behaviorExample:During independent work, Annie often talks out to get teacher attention. If ignored, Annie will begin yelling and throwing materials.When Annie first starts talking out, her teacher will immediately remind her how to appropriately get adult attention and will praise Annie’s use of the alternative behavior.Bonus Question:What type of reminder might Annie’s teacher use?
50 Responding to Problem Behavior: Minimize Reinforcement Do NOT allow the problem behavior to “work” or “pay off” for the student.Escape/AvoidEliminate/minimize the amount of missed instructional time or work provided to a student for engaging in problem behaviorBut… make sure student is capable of doing work… or provide support/instruction so student can complete the workAttention (Adult/Peer)Eliminate/minimize the amount of attention for engaging in problem behaviorLimit verbal interactions/explanationsCreate a signal to cue the student to use the alternative behavior insteadTeach peers to ignore problem behavior/walk away
51 Responding to Problem Behavior: Minimize Reinforcement Important to note that extinction should always be combined with high rates of reinforcement for appropriate behavior.Example:Darci engages in problem behavior that results in peer attention.Darci’s peers will receive “Duck Bucks” for ignoring her inappropriate behavior.Darci will also be learning how to interact with peers appropriately and will earn time with peers for alternative/desired behavior.
52 Identifying Consequence Strategies: Responding to Problem Behavior During independent seatwork, Ronnie makes inappropriate noises and makes faces at peers. The function of Ronnie’s behavior is to obtain peer attention.Redirection?Minimize Reinforcment?Which are the best strategies for responding to problem behavior (2)?The teacher speaks to the student in the hall and reminds him of the classroom rulesPeers explain to the student that he is being disrespectfulThe student is reminded that his parents will be called if he continues to behave inappropriatelyPeers are taught to ignore the inappropriate behaviorWhen the student begins to engage in the problem behavior, he is immediately prompted to appropriately ask to work with a peer
53 Identifying Consequence Strategies: Responding to Problem Behavior During independent reading time in language arts, Audrey makes noises, talks out, and walks around the room. The FBA has shown that this behavior is maintained by adult attention. (Alt Behv: ask for help from teacher.)Which are the best strategies for responding to problem behavior (2)?When student begins to engage in problem behavior, she receives a brief visual prompt to ask for teacher help/attentionPeers receive “Duck Bucks” for ignoring problem behaviorStudent goes to school psychologist’s office to discuss her behaviorTeacher minimizes attention for problem behaviorStudent stays in from recess to finish assignment with teacherRedirection?Minimize Reinforcement?
54 Activity #4 (pg. 5.10)Using the following example, please describe how you would minimize rewards for inappropriate behavior (include an example of redirection and minimizing reinforcement).When Pam is asked to work on long-division problems in math class, she argues, refuses to work, and uses profanity in order to avoid/escape the difficult task. (Alt Behv: Ask for easier task.)
55 Key Points from Module 5All BSPs begin with a complete and accurate FBA Summary Statement.Replacement behaviors should be: functionally equivalent, easy to do, and socially appropriate.All BSPs must contain Preventive, Teaching and Consequence strategies.Consequences must address both rewarding appropriate behavior AND minimizing the payoff for problem behavior.55
56 Check for Understanding #1 Page 5.12 What are the first 2 critical components of Behavior Support Plans?1. The Competing Behavior Pathway2. Function-based Strategies
57 Check for Understanding #2 What are the three types of intervention strategies that should be included as part of any behavior support plan?1. Prevention StrategiesTeaching StrategiesConsequence Strategies
58 Check for Understanding #3 Pages 5.13 – 5.16 Use the information in the following Competing Behavior Pathways to determine if the plans include appropriate strategies for:Preventing problem behaviorTeaching alternative and desired behaviorRewarding appropriate behaviorResponding to inappropriate behaviorIf not, please circle/explain what is missing/wrong, and propose an appropriate strategy.
59 Manipulate Antecedent Example A.Desired BehaviorComplete writing assignment and turn in workConsequenceGood grades, teacher acknowledgementRoutine 1st Period WritingSetting EventParent brings to school (does not interact with peers on bus)AntecedentAsked to finish homework or write in his journal independentlyProblem BehaviorOut of seat (walking around room), making noises, and talking to peersConsequence/FunctionAccess Peer AttentionPeers laugh and talk with him, and talk about it after classReplacement BehaviorAsk to work with a peerSetting EventsManipulate AntecedentTeach BehaviorAlter ConsequencesArrange time for positive adult attention before writing on days when student is brought by parentRemind student before independent-work time that he may choose to work quietly with a peerAllow student to sit with preferred peer in 1st period writingTeach student to appropriately ask to work with a peerExplicitly teach what “on-task” behavior looks like (and does not look like) in writing classRewardsStudent can work with peer when asks appropriatelyStudent can earn 5 minutes of free time with a peer, if stays on task for 90% of period for 5 consecutive daysResponse to ProblemWhen student starts to get out of seat/engage in problem behavior, remind him to ask appropriately to work with a peer
60 Manipulate Antecedent Example B.Desired BehaviorWork with peers to complete group assignmentConsequence Success, sense of accomplishment, peer attentionRoutine: Social StudiesSetting EventStudent gets to school late and misses breakfastAntecedentAsked to complete a project with a group (2-3 peers)Problem BehaviorWhining and refusing to do workConsequence/FunctionStudent is told to go complete her work in the officeAvoids working with peersReplacement BehaviorAsk appropriately if she may work on the assignment aloneSetting EventsManipulate AntecedentTeach BehaviorAlter ConsequencesArrange for more opportunities to work with peers on days when student has not had breakfastWhen passing out assignments provide student with a choice of working with a group or completing the assignment alonePlace a “reminder” card on student’s desk stating that she may ask to work alone at any point during the group taskProvide social skills training focused on how to work cooperatively with peers 3 x per weekRewardsStudent will be allowed to work alone when asks appropriatelyResponse to ProblemAt first sign of problem behavior, student will be told to go to resource room to complete work on her ownStudent is told that she may work alone after she either a) asks appropriately, or b) completes one part of the task with peersDesired Behavior??Replacement Behavior??
61 Manipulate Antecedent Example C.Desired Behavior Complete assignment without problem behaviorConsequence Success, sense of accomplishment, improved gradesRoutine: Math ClassSetting EventNone identifiedAntecedentAsked to complete long division problemsProblem BehaviorVerbally refuses, tears up worksheetConsequence/FunctionStudent is reprimanded and sent to hallAvoids difficult tasksReplacement BehaviorAsk appropriately for a break or easier taskSetting EventsManipulate AntecedentTeach BehaviorAlter ConsequencesNone identified- Provide visual prompts (highlighted text, graphic organizers) for writing assignments- Put visual reminder on desk to prompt Jim to ask for a break or easier task- Teach Jim how to appropriately ask for a ‘break’ or for an easier task and when (appropriate times) to do so- Provide additional small-group instruction in multi-digit multiplication and division- For every 5 difficult math problems that Jim completes, he will be allowed to skip 5 problems- When Jim first begins to get upset, ask him to go to the hall- If Jim continues to engage in problem behavior, he will complete his assignment with teacher during “free choice time”Replacement Behavior??
62 Task Over the next week… Using the FBA Summary Statement for Kelly from page 5.17 in your guide.a) Complete the Competing Behavior Pathwayb) Select function-based Prevention, Teaching and Consequence strategies.Use the form provided on page 5.18 of your guidebook6262
63 Comments/Questions about Module 5 At the bottom of page 5.19 please write any comments/questions you may have pertaining to this module.Thank you for your time & attention!6363