Presentation on theme: " Behavior & Classroom Management Week 10 – Function-Based Interventions; BSP Continued J Geurts, M.S. Special Education Portland State University"— Presentation transcript:
Behavior & Classroom Management Week 10 – Function-Based Interventions; BSP Continued J Geurts, M.S. Special Education Portland State University firstname.lastname@example.org Adapted from slides by Chris Borgmeier
Teaching Behavior Teaching 1) Identify skill(s) to teach Dual focus when teaching behavior Alternate Behavior Desired Behavior ALWAYS START with the Alternative Behavior -FIRST - Teach the alternate behavior you identified in Competing Behavior Pathway -Teaching = Review & practice regularly -THEN – teach the Desired Behavior -this may be something to focus on immediately, or only after the student is fluent with the alternative behavior
Teaching Behavior Don’t assume student already has Alternate Behavior in their skill set Develop an observable definition of behavior Identify examples & non-examples Model/ Lead/ Test Schedule Review & Practice of Skill/ Behavior Regularly Just like the BEHAVIOR LESSON from assignment 1….but for an individual student.
Teaching Behavior 1. First teach the Alternate Behavior What are the critical features of Teaching Interventions? Does Alt. Beh.: a)Serve same Function? b)Is it Easier? c)Socially acceptable? Yes or No? Why?
Example: Teaching Behavior A B C Teach Dexter to raise his hand & ask for a break, instead of engaging in negative behavior. * By teaching Dexter an easier alternate behavior to get what he wants, we’re making the problem behavior Inefficient. * Dexter will need frequent practice, precorrections, and prompts to help him get in the habit of using the alternate behavior
With a partner go through each of the Teaching Behavior options in Pre-Test #2 Yes or No & Why Activity 3
Teaching Interventions: Desired Behavior Achieving the Desired Behavior most often requires a sustained, focused teaching effort to build missing skills Academic deficits (often related to Avoiding difficult tasks) Example: student avoids reading because 3 grade levels behind in reading… requires intensive reading instruction to close gap Social Skills deficits (often related to seeking attention) Example: student seeks negative attention due to isolation from peers and adults resulting from aggressive behavior and limited social skills… requires sustained, targeted social skill instruction generalized to natural context Communication deficit Example: student screams and rocks vigorously back and forth due to limited communication skills which might result in getting a snack… requires teaching communication skills (PECS, sign language, etc.) Organizational/school skills deficits Example: student doesn’t complete homework due to limited scheduling and organization strategies which might result in (a) task avoidance due to limited background knowledge or (b) avoiding negative interactions with teacher because homework is frequently not done… requires teaching school skills
2. Next, teach content required to support student to achieve the Desired Behavior What do we need to teach student to achieve the desired behavior?
Example: Teaching Behavior A B CWe also may want to provide additional instruction in multi-digit multiplication & division to help Dexter gain confidence in completing math problems independently *By providing Dexter additional instruction in multi- digit multiplication & division, we can eventually make the problem behavior unnecessary.
Function Based Interventions Maintaining Consequence & Function Problem Behavior Antecedent FUNCTION Function should guide selection of prevention strategies Function should guide selection of alternative/ replacement behaviors When generating interventions we use Function to develop ideas to change A, B & C Targeted Routine
Antecedent Interventions Preventing Problem Behavior Prevention- Change the trigger that sets off the problem behavior Examine the Antecedent & Function of the Problem Behavior Change the antecedent so student will no longer need to use problem behavior (make the problem behavior Irrelevant) The best choices for Antecedent changes: 1. Directly address the identified antecedent 2. must address the function the problem behavior is serving
Antecedent Interventions Directly address the identified antecedent Antecedent = Asked to read aloud in class Potential options that more directly address the antecedent Do not ask student to read aloud in class Give student passage in advance to practice pre-reading Let student read 1 sentence directions they are familiar with, instead of entire paragraphs from the text Non-examples (do not directly address antecedent) Move student closer to the teacher Attend a counseling group about anger management Check-in with teacher before reading group Now, why is Function important?
Antecedent interventions must address the function the problem behavior serves Antecedent = Asked to read aloud in class + Function = Avoid any public presentation (not about reading difficulty; more related to social anxiety) Does the Intervention address the Function of Behavior Do not ask student to read aloud in class (or respond publicly) Give student passage in advance to practice pre-reading Let student read 1 sentence directions they are familiar with, instead of entire paragraphs from the text Does the intervention address the function of behavior?
Does the intervention directly address: a) the antecedent? b)the Function of the problem behavior? Antecedent Interventions Yes or No? Why? Critical features of Antecedent Interventions to prevent the Problem Behavior?
Antecedent Interventions A B CInstead of giving Dexter the class math assignment of multi- digit multiplication & division problems, let’s give him an assignment he can be more successful with (e.g. 4 single digit mult/div problems for every 1 multi-digit problem) * By changing A, we can PREVENT Dexter’s need to engage in negative behavior, making it Irrelevant
Activity 4 With a partner go through each of the Antecedent Interventions options in Pre-Test #2 Yes or No & Why
2. Next, identify ways to prompt/ precorrect the alternate & desired behavior
Function Based Interventions Maintaining Consequence & Function Problem Behavior Antecedent FUNCTION Function should guide selection of prevention strategies Function should guide selection of alternative/ replacement behaviors Function should guide selection of consequences: (+) and (-) When generating interventions we use Function to develop ideas to change A, B & C Targeted Routine
Consequence Interventions Reinforcing Behavior Reinforcement should focus on 2 different sets of behaviors Alternative Behavior & Desired Behavior 1. Reinforcing the Alternative Behavior When the student engages in the alternative behavior, quickly provide the student with an outcome that matches the outcome/ function of the problem behavior E.g. if student raises hand to request an easier, substitute assignment; in order to escape difficult tasks then quickly provide the student with the easier assignment
Consequence Interventions Reinforcing Behavior 2. Reinforcing the Desired Behavior(s), or approximations of the desired behavior The ultimate plan is to have the student move beyond the alternative behavior to using the desired behavior Reinforcing this progression should start from the beginning of the intervention
Consequence Interventions Reinforcing Behavior Considerations for Reinforcing Desired Behavior The goals & expectations for desired behavior must be reasonable Reasonable expectations of student behavior EXAMPLE: on a daily basis the student is out of seat & off task the entire period & has not turned in any work the entire term Probably NOT a Reasonable Expectation = student to be in seat the whole class period and turn in completed worksheets More Reasonable approximations (Start Small & Build on Success): Turns in assignments 50% completed On task and trying to complete work for 15 minutes each period
Consequence Interventions Reinforcing Behavior Considerations for Reinforcing Desired Behavior The timeframe for goals & expectations for desired behavior must be reasonable In the Beginning try to Reinforce Every occurrence or approximation Reasonable timeframes for Reinforcement Probably NOT Reasonable Timeframes for reinforcement If student turns in all worksheets for week 1, he will earn 15 min. in skate park on Friday If student is in seat and on-task for the entire period, he will earn a candy bar More Reasonable Timeframes for reinforcement If student completes 5 problems, he can choose 3 problems to cross off the worksheet If student is on task for 10 min., he will earn 4 min. of computer time
Consequence Interventions Reinforcing Behavior Considerations for Reinforcing Desired Behavior The reinforcer must be valued by the student The function of behavior is a good place to start when identifying valued reinforcers e.g. If the function of behavior is to Gain Peer Attention, the reinforcer should give access to Peer Attention e.g. if the function of behavior is to Avoid Difficult Task the reinforcer could be a “Free Homework Pass”
Consequence Intervention: Reinforcing Positive Behavior 1. Identify an intervention to Reinforce the Alternate Behavior Yes or No? Why? Critical features of Reinforcers? 2. Identify an intervention to Reinforce the Desired Behavior Steps in Identifying Reinforcers? a)Is reinforcer valued? (start w/ function of behavior) b) Are expectations & timeframes reasonable for the student?
Activity 5 With a partner go through each of the Consequence Interventions options in Pre-Test #2 Yes or No & Why
Consequence Interventions Responding to Problem Behavior Responding to Problem Behavior should focus on 2 things: Redirecting to the Alternative Behavior Active Extinction of the Problem Behavior Do NOT let the problem behavior be effective in giving the student what they want 1. Redirecting to the Alternative Behavior When the student engages in the alternative behavior, quickly provide the student with an outcome that matches the function of the problem behavior This should also help to prevent escalation E.g. if student raises hand to request an easier, substitute assignment; in order to escape difficult tasks then quickly provide the student with the easier assignment
Consequence Interventions Responding to Problem Behavior 2. Active Extinction of the Problem Behavior Make sure the problem behavior no longer works for the student… If using a consequence as a response to negative behavior, make sure the consequence is not providing the desired function for the student
Consequence Intervention Responding to Problem Behavior 1. Prompt the Alternate Behavior at earliest signs of problem behavior Yes or No? Why? 2. Identify a response to problem behavior that does not reinforce the Problem Behavior Steps in Identifying Responses to Problem Behavior?
Example: Consequence Interventions A B C We must refuse to (C) let Dexter avoid difficult math tasks by (B) engaging in disrespectful behavior & Instead prompt him to raise his hand and (C) reward him for (B) raising his hand & asking for a break (Alternate Behvior) * By not providing Dexter w/ what he wants when he engages in disrespectful behavior we are making the problem behavior Ineffective. * It is important that we work hard to Reinforce Dexter for engaging in the alternate behavior, or he is likely to go back to & escalate the problem behavior
Activity 6 With a partner go through each of the Consequence Interventions options in Pre-Test #2 Yes or No & Why
Function Based Interventions Maintaining Consequence & Function Problem Behavior Antecedent FUNCTION AVOIDING DIFFICULT TASK Prevent Make task less difficult to avoid difficult task Alternate behavior Must allow student to avoid difficult task Consequence (+) Reinforce (a) alternate behavior w/ oppt’y to avoid task & (b) desired behavior (effort on task) (-) problem behavior should not result in avoiding task; redirect to Alt. behavior When generating interventions we use Function to develop ideas to change A, B & C Targeted Routine
Function Based Interventions Maintaining Consequence & Function Problem Behavior Antecedent FUNCTION GETTING ADULT ATTENTION Prevent Provide adult Attention in advance & often Alternate behavior Must give student access to adult attention Consequence (+) Reinforce both alternate behavior & desired behavior w/ adult attention (-) problem behavior should not result in adult attention; redirect to Alt. behavior When generating interventions we use Function to develop ideas to change A, B & C Targeted Routine
Proactive (PBS) Interventions Attention Seeking A - PREVENTION Interventions occurring before the behavior occurs Prevention (give attention early for positive) Check-in – provide adult attention immediately upon student arrival Give student leadership responsibility or a class ‘job’ that requires the student to interact w/ staff Place student in desk where they are easily accessible for frequent staff attention Give student frequent intermittent attention for positive or neutral behavior PreCorrect - Frequently & deliberately remind student to raise their hand and wait patiently if they want your attention
Proactive (PBS) Interventions Avoid Task A - PREVENTION Interventions occurring before the behavior occurs Prevention (modify task or provide support) Modify assignments to meet student instructional/skill level (adjust timelines, provide graphic organizers, break in to smaller chunks, etc.) Assign student to work with a peer Provide additional instruction/support Provide visual prompt to cue steps for completing tasks student struggles with Provide additional support focused on instructional skills (Homework Club, study hall, etc.) PreTeaching content PreCorrect - Frequently & deliberately remind student to ask for help
Proactive (PBS) Interventions Attention Seeking B - TEACH Behaviors to use instead of the problem behavior Teach student more appropriate ways to ask for adult attention Identify and teach specific examples of ways to ask for attention -Raise hand and wait patiently for teacher to call on you -likely need to differentiate (large group, small \ group, work time, etc.)
Proactive (PBS) Interventions Avoid Task B - TEACH Behaviors to use instead of the problem behavior Teach student more appropriate ways to ask for help from teacher or peers Provide additional instruction on skill deficits Identify and teach specific examples of ways to ask for help -Raise hand and wait patiently for teacher to call on you -teach student to use a break card -likely need to differentiate (large group, small \ group, work time, etc.)
Proactive (PBS) Interventions Avoid Task B - TEACH Desired Behaviors Provide academic instruction/support to address student skill deficits -More focused instruction in class - Additional instructional group - Special Education support for academic deficit - additional support and practice at home -additional assessment to identify specific skill deficits
PBS Interventions Attention Seeking RESPONSE TO BEHAVIOR Intervention occurs after (in response to) positive or negative behavior Respond quickly if student asks appropriate for adult attention Give the student frequent adult attention for positive behavior Student earns ‘lunch w/ teacher’ when student earns points for paying attn in class & asking appropriately for attention Eliminate/minimize the amount of attention provided to a student for engaging in problem behavior Limit verbal interaction – create a signal to prompt the student to stop the problem behavior Avoid power struggles C -
PBS Interventions Attention Seeking C Sometimes students need additional encouragement to engage in the desired behavior… When using additional incentives to encourage student positive behavior If students desire adult attention, use it as an incentive -lunch with teacher -1:1 game with favorite staff, etc. -special teacher assistant
PBS Interventions Avoid Task RESPONSE TO BEHAVIOR Intervention occurs after (in response to) positive or negative behavior Respond quickly if student asks for help or for a break Reward students for on task, trying hard, work completion & for asking for a break or help appropriately Eliminate/minimize the amount of missed instructional time or work provided to a student for engaging in problem behavior However, need to make sure student is capable of doing work… or provide support/instruction so student can complete the work C -
PBS Interventions Avoid Task C Sometimes students need additional encouragement to engage in the desired behavior… When using additional incentives to encourage student positive behavior If students is attempting to avoid tasks, you might use free homework passes or reduced numbers of problems as an incentive
Start with the Short Term Goals Increasing the Alternate Behavior & Decreasing Problem Behavior
Use Competing Pathway to Identify Outcome Measures Typical Consequence Maintaining Consequence Desired Behavior Problem Behavior Alternate Behavior Antecedent Setting Event Summary of Behavior Immediate Short Term Goals Reduce Problem Behavior Increase use of Alt. Behavior
Why the Alternate Behavior? Why can’t we go right to the Desired Behavior? Success, another problem Sent back to table (escape task) Complete math problem Throws a Tantrum Raise hand & ask for break Given double digit addn problems None identified 1. This is what we’re asking the student to do. 2. This is what the student wants now. 3. Look how different this is from what’s happening now 4. The student is going to need to gain the math skills before being able to do this like peers 5. So… in the meantime we use the alternate behavior
Desired Behavior Long-term goal = to follow regular classrooms routines and norms, as independently as possible (w/ supports reduced or eliminated) and looking as similar as possible to peers
So… back to a short term goal Develop a goal to review in 2 weeks at initial follow-up meeting Focus on: Reducing problem behavior Increasing use of alternate behavior How can we measure this in a feasible, but effective way?
Short term Goal Reduce frequency of problem behavior Increase use of alternative/replacement behavior How do we measure this? Depends on the frequency & type of problem behavior
Identifying an Appropriate way to Measure Must measure specific targeted/ prioritized behavior (Fighting, disruption, off task, attendance, work completed, etc.) Best way to measure (Objective v. Subjective) Frequency Duration Subjective rating (point card) Balancing Accuracy & Feasibility of Data Collection Measure must be a feasible form of data collection for teachers/staff What is the baseline?
Using Point Cards Point cards are an easy way to track progress with a behavioral plan Good for helping students learn to monitor their own behavior Easily linked with Reinforcement Program Flexible & feasible for teachers
Individualized Point Card Fill in more specific behaviors
Identify a Short-term Goal & Data Collection Plan & Format Short-term Goal -- Where to start: 1. Reduction in Problem Behavior 2. Increase in Alternate Behavior Do we have any baseline data?
Identify a Short-term Goal & Data Collection Plan & Format Short-term Goal -- Where to start: Do we have any baseline data? Point cards? Discipline referral? Teacher estimates of frequency/duration Use data/estimates to set a reasonable goal
Identify a Short-term Goal & Data Collection Plan & Format Short-term Goal -- Where to start: Use data/estimates to set a reasonable goal Set initial goals that the student is able to achieve (early success) Link incentives to data & reasonable student progress (so goals must be reasonable)
Questions for Evaluation Plan Does your evaluation plan focus on the prioritized behaviors of concern? Reduction in problem behavior Increased use of alternate and desired behaviors? If the student meets the goal, will there be a noticeable difference in student behavior? Is the evaluation plan clearly linked with the reinforcement program? Is data collection feasible?
Daily Point Card Specific goals Do a few things well Provide feedback Celebrate success U-Turn Collect data Decision making Reporting on IEPs Communicate with parents Daily Trends over time Social Skills Celebration vs. boasting Accepting corrective feedback Self-Advocacy