3Teaching Behavior Teaching Identify skill(s) to teach Dual focus when teaching behaviorAlternate BehaviorDesired BehaviorALWAYS START with the Alternative Behavior-FIRST - Teach the alternate behavior you identified in Competing Behavior Pathway-Teaching = Review & practice regularly-THEN – teach the Desired Behavior-this may be something to focus on immediately, or only after the student is fluent with the alternative behavior
4Teaching BehaviorDon’t assume student already has Alternate Behavior in their skill setDevelop an observable definition of behaviorIdentify examples & non-examplesModel/ Lead/ TestSchedule Review & Practice of Skill/ Behavior RegularlyJust like the BEHAVIOR LESSON from assignment 1….but for an individual student.
5What are the critical features of Teaching Interventions? Teaching BehaviorWhat are the critical features of Teaching Interventions?1. First teach the Alternate BehaviorYes or No?Why?Does Alt. Beh.:Serve same Function?Is it Easier?Socially acceptable?
6Example: Teaching Behavior A B C Teach Dexter to raise his hand & ask for a break, instead of engaging in negative behavior.* By teaching Dexter an easier alternate behavior to get what he wants, we’re making the problem behavior Inefficient.* Dexter will need frequent practice , precorrections, and prompts to help him get in the habit of using the alternate behavior
7Activity 3With a partner go through each of the Teaching Behavior options in Pre-Test #2 Yes or No & Why
8Teaching Interventions: Desired Behavior Achieving the Desired Behavior most often requires a sustained, focused teaching effort to build missing skillsAcademic deficits (often related to Avoiding difficult tasks)Example: student avoids reading because 3 grade levels behind in reading… requires intensive reading instruction to close gapSocial Skills deficits (often related to seeking attention)Example: student seeks negative attention due to isolation from peers and adults resulting from aggressive behavior and limited social skills… requires sustained, targeted social skill instruction generalized to natural contextCommunication deficitExample: student screams and rocks vigorously back and forth due to limited communication skills which might result in getting a snack… requires teaching communication skills (PECS, sign language, etc.)Organizational/school skills deficitsExample: student doesn’t complete homework due to limited scheduling and organization strategies which might result in (a) task avoidance due to limited background knowledge or (b) avoiding negative interactions with teacher because homework is frequently not done… requires teaching school skills
9What do we need to teach student to achieve the desired behavior? 2. Next, teach content required to support student to achieve the Desired Behavior
10Example: Teaching Behavior A B C We also may want to provide additional instruction in multi-digit multiplication & division to help Dexter gain confidence in completing math problems independently*By providing Dexter additional instruction in multi- digit multiplication & division, we can eventually make the problem behavior unnecessary.
13Function Based Interventions When generating interventions we use Function to develop ideas to change A, B & CTargeted RoutineMaintaining Consequence & FunctionAntecedentProblem BehaviorFUNCTIONFunction should guide selection of prevention strategiesFunction should guide selection of alternative/ replacement behaviors
14Antecedent Interventions Preventing Problem BehaviorPrevention- Change the trigger that sets off the problem behaviorExamine the Antecedent & Function of the Problem BehaviorChange the antecedent so student will no longer need to use problem behavior (make the problem behavior Irrelevant)The best choices for Antecedent changes:Directly address the identified antecedentmust address the function the problem behavior is serving
15Antecedent Interventions Directly address the identified antecedent Antecedent = Asked to read aloud in classPotential options that more directly address the antecedentDo not ask student to read aloud in classGive student passage in advance to practice pre-readingLet student read 1 sentence directions they are familiar with, instead of entire paragraphs from the textNon-examples (do not directly address antecedent)Move student closer to the teacherAttend a counseling group about anger managementCheck-in with teacher before reading groupNow, why is Function important?
16Antecedent interventions must address the function the problem behavior serves Antecedent = Asked to read aloud in class +Function = Avoid any public presentation (not about reading difficulty; more related to social anxiety)Does the Intervention address the Function of BehaviorDo not ask student to read aloud in class (or respond publicly)Give student passage in advance to practice pre-readingLet student read 1 sentence directions they are familiar with, instead of entire paragraphs from the textDoes the intervention address the function of behavior?
17Antecedent Interventions Critical features of Antecedent Interventions to prevent the Problem Behavior?Does the intervention directly address:the antecedent?the Function of the problem behavior?Yes or No?Why?
18Antecedent Interventions A B C Instead of giving Dexter the class math assignment of multi- digit multiplication & division problems, let’s give him an assignment he can be more successful with (e.g. 4 single digit mult/div problems for every 1 multi-digit problem)*By changing A, we can PREVENT Dexter’s need to engage in negative behavior, making it Irrelevant
19Activity 4With a partner go through each of the Antecedent Interventions options in Pre-Test #2 Yes or No & Why
202. Next, identify ways to prompt/ precorrect the alternate & desired behavior
22Function Based Interventions When generating interventions we use Function to develop ideas to change A, B & CTargeted RoutineMaintaining Consequence & FunctionAntecedentProblem BehaviorFUNCTIONFunction should guide selection of consequences: (+) and (-)Function should guide selection of prevention strategiesFunction should guide selection of alternative/ replacement behaviors
23Consequence Interventions Reinforcing Behavior Reinforcement should focus on 2 different sets of behaviors Alternative Behavior & Desired BehaviorReinforcing the Alternative BehaviorWhen the student engages in the alternative behavior, quickly provide the student with an outcome that matches the outcome/ function of the problem behaviorE.g. if student raises hand to request an easier, substitute assignment; in order to escape difficult tasks then quickly provide the student with the easier assignment
24Consequence Interventions Reinforcing Behavior Reinforcing the Desired Behavior(s), or approximations of the desired behaviorThe ultimate plan is to have the student move beyond the alternative behavior to using the desired behaviorReinforcing this progression should start from the beginning of the intervention
25Consequence Interventions Reinforcing Behavior Considerations for Reinforcing Desired BehaviorThe goals & expectations for desired behavior must be reasonableReasonable expectations of student behaviorEXAMPLE: on a daily basis the student is out of seat & off task the entire period & has not turned in any work the entire termProbably NOT a Reasonable Expectation = student to be in seat the whole class period and turn in completed worksheetsMore Reasonable approximations (Start Small & Build on Success):Turns in assignments 50% completedOn task and trying to complete work for 15 minutes each period
26Consequence Interventions Reinforcing Behavior Considerations for Reinforcing Desired BehaviorThe timeframe for goals & expectations for desired behavior must be reasonableIn the Beginning try to Reinforce Every occurrence or approximationReasonable timeframes for ReinforcementProbably NOT Reasonable Timeframes for reinforcementIf student turns in all worksheets for week 1, he will earn 15 min. in skate park on FridayIf student is in seat and on-task for the entire period, he will earn a candy barMore Reasonable Timeframes for reinforcementIf student completes 5 problems, he can choose 3 problems to cross off the worksheetIf student is on task for 10 min., he will earn 4 min. of computer time
27Consequence Interventions Reinforcing Behavior Considerations for Reinforcing Desired BehaviorThe reinforcer must be valued by the studentThe function of behavior is a good place to start when identifying valued reinforcerse.g. If the function of behavior is to Gain Peer Attention, the reinforcer should give access to Peer Attentione.g. if the function of behavior is to Avoid Difficult Task the reinforcer could be a “Free Homework Pass”
28Consequence Intervention: Reinforcing Positive Behavior Steps in Identifying Reinforcers?Critical features of Reinforcers?1. Identify an intervention to Reinforce the Alternate BehaviorIs reinforcer valued? (start w/ function of behavior)b) Are expectations & timeframes reasonable for the student?2. Identify an intervention to Reinforce the Desired BehaviorYes or No?Why?
29Activity 5With a partner go through each of the Consequence Interventions options in Pre-Test #2 Yes or No & Why
30Consequence Interventions Responding to Problem Behavior Responding to Problem Behavior should focus on 2 things:Redirecting to the Alternative BehaviorActive Extinction of the Problem BehaviorDo NOT let the problem behavior be effective in giving the student what they wantWhen the student engages in the alternative behavior, quickly provide the student with an outcome that matches the function of the problem behaviorThis should also help to prevent escalationE.g. if student raises hand to request an easier, substitute assignment; in order to escape difficult tasks then quickly provide the student with the easier assignment
31Consequence Interventions Responding to Problem Behavior Active Extinction of the Problem BehaviorMake sure the problem behavior no longer works for the student… If using a consequence as a response to negative behavior, make sure the consequence is not providing the desired function for the student
32Consequence Intervention Responding to Problem Behavior Steps in Identifying Responses to Problem Behavior?Yes or No?Why?1. Prompt the Alternate Behavior at earliest signs of problem behavior2. Identify a response to problem behavior that does not reinforce the Problem Behavior
33Example: Consequence Interventions A B C We must refuse to (C) let Dexter avoid difficult math tasks by (B) engaging in disrespectful behavior & Instead prompt him to raise his hand and (C) reward him for (B) raising his hand & asking for a break (Alternate Behvior)* By not providing Dexter w/ what he wants when he engages in disrespectful behavior we are making the problem behavior Ineffective.* It is important that we work hard to Reinforce Dexter for engaging in the alternate behavior, or he is likely to go back to & escalate the problem behavior
34Activity 6With a partner go through each of the Consequence Interventions options in Pre-Test #2 Yes or No & Why
37Function Based Interventions When generating interventions we use Function to develop ideas to change A, B & CTargeted RoutineMaintaining Consequence & FunctionAntecedentProblem BehaviorFUNCTIONAVOIDING DIFFICULT TASKConsequence(+) Reinforce (a) alternate behavior w/ oppt’y to avoid task & (b) desired behavior (effort on task)(-) problem behavior should not result in avoiding task; redirect to Alt. behaviorPreventMake task less difficult to avoid difficult taskAlternate behaviorMust allow student to avoid difficult task
38Function Based Interventions When generating interventions we use Function to develop ideas to change A, B & CTargeted RoutineMaintaining Consequence & FunctionAntecedentProblem BehaviorFUNCTIONGETTING ADULT ATTENTIONConsequence(+) Reinforce both alternate behavior & desired behavior w/ adult attention(-) problem behavior should not result in adult attention; redirect to Alt. behaviorPreventProvide adult Attention in advance & oftenAlternate behaviorMust give student access to adult attention
40Proactive (PBS) Interventions Attention Seeking A - PREVENTIONInterventions occurring before the behavior occursPrevention (give attention early for positive)Check-in – provide adult attention immediately upon student arrivalGive student leadership responsibility or a class ‘job’ that requires the student to interact w/ staffPlace student in desk where they are easily accessible for frequent staff attentionGive student frequent intermittent attention for positive or neutral behaviorPreCorrect - Frequently & deliberately remind student to raise their hand and wait patiently if they want your attention
41Proactive (PBS) Interventions Avoid Task A - PREVENTIONInterventions occurring before the behavior occursPrevention (modify task or provide support)Modify assignments to meet student instructional/skill level (adjust timelines, provide graphic organizers, break in to smaller chunks, etc.)Assign student to work with a peerProvide additional instruction/supportProvide visual prompt to cue steps for completing tasks student struggles withProvide additional support focused on instructional skills (Homework Club, study hall, etc.)PreTeaching contentPreCorrect - Frequently & deliberately remind student to ask for help
43Proactive (PBS) Interventions Attention Seeking B - TEACHBehaviors to use instead of the problem behaviorTeach student more appropriate ways to ask for adult attentionIdentify and teach specific examples of ways to ask for attention-Raise hand and wait patiently for teacher to callon you-likely need to differentiate (large group, small \group, work time, etc.)
44Proactive (PBS) Interventions Avoid Task B - TEACHBehaviors to use instead of the problem behaviorTeach student more appropriate ways to ask for help from teacher or peersProvide additional instruction on skill deficitsIdentify and teach specific examples of ways to ask for help-Raise hand and wait patiently for teacher to callon you-teach student to use a break card-likely need to differentiate (large group, small \group, work time, etc.)
45Proactive (PBS) Interventions Avoid Task B - TEACHDesired BehaviorsProvide academic instruction/support to address student skill deficits-More focused instruction in class- Additional instructional group- Special Education support for academic deficit- additional support and practice at home-additional assessment to identify specific skill deficits
47PBS Interventions Attention Seeking RESPONSE TO BEHAVIORIntervention occurs after (in response to) positive or negative behaviorRespond quickly if student asks appropriate for adult attentionGive the student frequent adult attention for positive behaviorStudent earns ‘lunch w/ teacher’ when student earns points for paying attn in class & asking appropriately for attentionEliminate/minimize the amount of attention provided to a student for engaging in problem behaviorLimit verbal interaction – create a signal to prompt the student to stop the problem behaviorAvoid power strugglesC -
48PBS Interventions Attention Seeking CSometimes students need additional encouragement to engage in the desired behavior…When using additional incentives to encourage student positive behaviorIf students desire adult attention, use it as an incentive-lunch with teacher-1:1 game with favorite staff, etc.-special teacher assistant
49PBS Interventions Avoid Task RESPONSE TO BEHAVIORIntervention occurs after (in response to) positive or negative behaviorRespond quickly if student asks for help or for a breakReward students for on task, trying hard, work completion & for asking for a break or help appropriatelyEliminate/minimize the amount of missed instructional time or work provided to a student for engaging in problem behaviorHowever, need to make sure student is capable of doing work… or provide support/instruction so student can complete the workC -
50PBS Interventions Avoid Task CSometimes students need additional encouragement to engage in the desired behavior…When using additional incentives to encourage student positive behaviorIf students is attempting to avoid tasks, you might use free homework passes or reduced numbers of problems as an incentive
52Start with the Short Term Goals Increasing the Alternate Behavior & Decreasing Problem Behavior
53Use Competing Pathway to Identify Outcome Measures Desired BehaviorTypical ConsequenceSummary of BehaviorSetting EventAntecedentProblem BehaviorMaintaining ConsequenceAlternate BehaviorImmediate Short Term GoalsReduce Problem BehaviorIncrease use of Alt. Behavior
54Why the Alternate Behavior Why the Alternate Behavior? Why can’t we go right to the Desired Behavior?4. The student is going to need to gain the math skills before being able to do this like peers3. Look how different this is from what’s happening now1. This is what we’re asking the student to do.Complete math problemSuccess, another problemGiven double digit addn problemsSent back to table (escape task)None identifiedThrows a Tantrum2. This is what the student wants now.Raise hand & ask for break5. So… in the meantime we use the alternate behavior
55Desired BehaviorLong-term goal = to follow regular classrooms routines and norms, as independently as possible (w/ supports reduced or eliminated) and looking as similar as possible to peers
56So… back to a short term goal Develop a goal to review in 2 weeks at initial follow-up meetingFocus on:Reducing problem behaviorIncreasing use of alternate behaviorHow can we measure this in a feasible, but effective way?
57Short term Goal Reduce frequency of problem behavior Increase use of alternative/replacement behaviorHow do we measure this?Depends on the frequency & type of problem behavior
58Identifying an Appropriate way to Measure Must measure specific targeted/ prioritized behavior(Fighting, disruption, off task, attendance, work completed, etc.)Best way to measure (Objective v. Subjective)FrequencyDurationSubjective rating (point card)Balancing Accuracy & Feasibility of Data CollectionMeasure must be a feasible form of data collection for teachers/staffWhat is the baseline?
59Using Point CardsPoint cards are an easy way to track progress with a behavioral planGood for helping students learn to monitor their own behaviorEasily linked with Reinforcement ProgramFlexible & feasible for teachers
60Reduce Problem Behavior Alternate BehaviorReduce Problem Behavior
61Measure Use of Alternate Behavior Measure Reduced Problem Behavior
62Use Existing Data Forms when possible Try to be consistent with point card forms that might be in use for Check-In/Check-Out programs if possible
64Individualized Point Card Fill in more specific behaviors
65Identify a Short-term Goal & Data Collection Plan & Format Short-term Goal -- Where to start:Reduction in Problem BehaviorIncrease in Alternate BehaviorDo we have any baseline data?
66Identify a Short-term Goal & Data Collection Plan & Format Short-term Goal -- Where to start:Do we have any baseline data?Point cards?Discipline referral?Teacher estimates of frequency/durationUse data/estimates to set a reasonable goal
67Identify a Short-term Goal & Data Collection Plan & Format Short-term Goal -- Where to start:Use data/estimates to set a reasonable goalSet initial goals that the student is able to achieve (early success)Link incentives to data & reasonable student progress (so goals must be reasonable)
68Questions for Evaluation Plan Does your evaluation plan focus on the prioritized behaviors of concern?Reduction in problem behaviorIncreased use of alternate and desired behaviors?If the student meets the goal, will there be a noticeable difference in student behavior?Is the evaluation plan clearly linked with the reinforcement program?Is data collection feasible?
69Daily Point Card Specific goals Provide feedback Collect data Do a few things wellProvide feedbackCelebrate successU-TurnCollect dataDecision makingReporting on IEPsCommunicate with parentsDailyTrends over timeSocial SkillsCelebration vs. boastingAccepting corrective feedbackSelf-Advocacy