Overview of Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS) Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS) or Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is based on a three-tier system of school-wide behavioral support: Tier 1: School-wide and/or classroom-wide behavioral expectations with consistent positive consequences Tier 2: Behavioral interventions for specific groups of children requiring additional supports Tier 3: Individual behavioral interventions for students needed intensive levels of support Bradshaw, Reinke, Brown, Bevans, & Leaf, 2008) For more information on the PBS or PBIS model, visit the following website:
Overview of Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS) PBS is a proactive approach rather than a reactive approach Instead of responding to inappropriate behavior after it occurs and providing punitive measures, specific behavioral expectations are systematically taught and consistently reinforced in a positive way
Overview of Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS) This lesson (Lesson 1 of Module 8) will focus on tier 1 and tier 2 interventions for general education classrooms that include at least on student with ASD Lesson 2 and 3 of Module 8 will focus on tier 3 interventions for students with ASD by presenting material on conducting functional behavior assessments and developing behavior intervention plans
Here are some general suggestions for organizing a classroom that includes at least one student with ASD Place furniture so that students understand the environment and their expectations for each section of the classroom Have a predictable sequence of activities Utilize visual schedules to go along with the predictable sequence of activities (see examples on following slides) Provide visual instructions for independent activities such as learning centers Minimize distractions such as loud noises and visual clutter (Mesibov, Shea, & Schopler, 2006)
Examples of Visual Schedules The next few slides show some examples of visual schedules The examples were taken from a powerpoint developed by: START: An IDEA funded projected awarded by the Michigan Department of Education through the Office of Special Education and Early Intervention Services. To view the entire power point and for links sources for creating visual schedules click here:
Visual Schedule Example
This is an Individual schedule that a student can use. Velcro is used so the student can move the activities to the all done side after they are finished. Things to do.All Done Warm-Up Work Task Break Community Lunch
Visual Schedule Examples This schedule is an example of a schedule that can be used for a specific routine or activity. This was for getting ready for recess in the winter. Similar schedules can be created for learning center activities and other work that students are expected to complete independently.
Explicit Instruction for Behavioral and Social Expectations It is important to explicitly teach behavioral and social expectations just as you would teach academic skills. Classroom rules and routines should be taught through explicit instruction and role play Consistent positive reinforcement for students meeting the expectations and positive redirection for students not meeting the expectations is essential
Classroom Rules Rules should be limited to 3-5 positively stated rules Rules should be explicitly taught as was discussed on the previous slide Gestural and/or visual cues should be used to provided positive redirection when necessary
Classroom Routines Routines such as using the bathroom, sharpening a pencil, unpacking in the morning, etc. should have specific procedures that are explicitly taught. This can reduce a great deal of behavioral challenges for instructional and non- instructional classroom routines as students will know exactly what is expected and will be positively reinforced for meeting those expectations.
Providing Positive Reinforcement The definition of positive reinforcement is: Providing a consequence immediately following a behavior that is likely to maintain or increase the occurrence of that behavior in the future. This means that things that you think of as punishment can in fact be positive reinforcers. Ex. Yelling at student can actually increase the behavior you are addressing because the student is positively reinforced by the negative attention received.
Providing Positive Reinforcement All students do not find the same things positively reinforcing. Ex. Stickers, or positive praise, or free time on the computer are not always desirable for all students Therefore, you need to know what is positively reinforcing to the student with ASD so you know what consequences to provide when the student meets behavioral, social and academic expectations. Note: What is reinforcing one day, may not necessarily be reinforcing the next day, week, or month. Changing up positive reinforcers is usually necessary. Use natural reinforcers as much as possible (discussed in Module 8, Lesson 3)
Beware of the Color Chart In many general education classrooms, teachers use a color chart for managing behavior. All students start out on green, and their color is changed when they engage in inappropriate behaviors This type of system is often counter- productive for students with ASD. They can get so upset that their color was changed and end up having a complete tantrum or emotional meltdown over it
Options Beyond the Color Chart Caught You Being Good Chart: Students are given stars or stickers for displaying positive behaviors This can be implemented class-wide or for individual students This can also be used for groups of students to encourage positive cooperative learning behaviors Use a Ticket System: Students receive tickets for displaying positive behaviors. They write their names on each ticket received and put the tickets in a large container The teacher draws names from the tickets for special rewards such as lunch with the teacher, candy, extra computer time, running errands for the teacher, etc.
Responding to Inappropriate Behaviors When students display negative behaviors, consequences should be clearly defined and followed consistently. There should be a hierarchy of responses such as: Non-verbal warning (positively redirected) Verbal warning (positively redirected) Physical redirection Time-out (removal from reinforcement for a short period of time) Note: It is much more effective to be proactive than reactive. For example, if you notice a student is about to display in an undesirable behavior try to positively redirect the student before the behavior occurs. Also, focus much more on providing positive reinforcement for appropriate behaviors than punishment for negative behaviors.
Module 8 Lesson 1 Activity Create a Positive Behavioral Support plan for your classroom that addresses Tier 1 and Tier 2 Levels (class-wide and groups of students) that includes: 1.A set of rules with explanations for how they will be taught and positively reinforced 2.A set of classroom procedures with explanations for how they will be taught and positively reinforced 3.A system for recognizing positive behaviors throughout the school day for all students and for groups of students that may require more behavioral support than others 4.A hierarchy of responses for responding to negative behaviors with an explanation for exactly what is done at each level
References Bradshaw, C. P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K. B., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). Implementation of school- wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: observations from a randomized trial.(Report). Education & Treatment of Children, 31 (1), Mesibov, G. B., Shea, V., & Schopler, E. (2006). The TEACCH approach to autism spectrum disorders. New York, NY: Springer.