Presentation on theme: "Social Reasons For Participation"— Presentation transcript:
1Social Reasons For Participation INCREASED LEISURE TIME - people nowadays have much more leisure time than in the past.Some people like to spend this time visiting health and fitness clubs whilst others prefer a walk in the countryside.Another reason is that people are much more mobile now so a visit to the seaside for example is easy to access.There are several reasons for this increase in leisure time
2THE SHORTER WORKING WEEK - in the UK today workers work 37 hours per week or less, during the 1960’s it was common to work between 40 and 44 hours.TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES - technology has reduced the hours it used to take to do many jobs. There are also other benefits for example advances in medicine has meant people are living longer and therefore able to take part in leisure and sporting activities beyond retirement age.EARLY RETIREMENT - more people now take an early retirement than ever beforeUNEMPLOYMENT - unemployment gives people time to take part in sport and leisure activities. However money can be an issue.
3Walking in the countryside is a popular leisure activity
4WHY PEOPLE PARTICIPATE There are three general categories that can help us to understand why sport and recreation might be important to many peopleHEALTH - people are becoming more concerned with their health and well beingLEISURE - many people like to participate in physical activity simply because they enjoy it. It also provides a great opportunity to socialise and make new friendsVOCATION - there are thousands of people who take part in sport and physical activities simply because its their job .
5The Role of The School In Promoting Participation SPORT IN SCHOOL - schools encourage participation in sport in a number of different ways such as a performer, organiser, coach, captain and there are many more.This can lead to continued participation into adulthood, especially when links with sport clubs and leisure centres are establishedschool promote sport through PE and GAMES as
7EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES Representative teamsSport activity clubsResidential HolidaysVisits to Leisure ClubsLinks with the Local ClubsSpecialist Coaching Clinics
8AWARDS AND EXAMSSport Specific Achievement Awards/Certificates e.g. BAGA, ASASports Leaders AwardGCSE Level Exam‘A’ Level ExamGNVQ
9ACTIVITIES AVAILAVBLE FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN - depend on Facilities within a schoolFacilities outside a school - links with sports clubs, leisure centres, etc.Experience, expertise and enthusiasm of the teaching staffAccess to specialist coaching - links with clubs, sports governing bodies, development officer, award schemesA school’s specialisation - e.g. sports college
10Social BackgroundPOSITIVE AND NEGATIVE INFLUENCES ON PARTICIPATION - everyone is subject to factors which may influence their participation in a sport or activity.ACCESSdepends on how near you live to a sports facility.AGEsome sports or activities are more appropriate to certain age grouppeople may participate less as they get older
11Athletes with disability - not disabled athletes this may limit the number and types of sport available and who can actually participate.Many sports are doing more to provide for disabled athletesAthletes with disability - not disabled athletesdisability sport - not disabled sport!
12EDUCATIONA positive school experience may lead to continued participation in later life.Compulsory PE in state schools up to the age of 16FAMILYprovide early introduction to activitiesrole models (parents and siblings)encouragement and support
13ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE top winter sports people tend to come from the cold, mountainous regions/environments
14GENDERmale participation is higher than femalemore sports and activities are available to malesalmost all professional sport award less prize money for women's events than men'sTHE MEDIAcan raise the awareness of sports, activities and healthy lifestylespromote role modelsincrease the popularity of minority sports
15PEER GROUPfriends of similar age or background can be either active or non-active in sport. This could influence or place pressure on peers.POLITICSgovernment involvement on how much is spent on providing facilities for public usethe ‘elite’ may receive special help to promote excellence and national pride.In 1960 the western world began to see the emergence of athletes from eastern European countries that were almost unbeatable. This success was a result of state policy.
16POVERTYunemployment limits participation due to lack of moneysome sports are too expensivelocal communities or countries may be too poor to provide facilitiesSPONSORSHIPsponsorship is a very big business in sporta definition of sponsorship in sport might be that it is ‘ the funding of sporting activity for commercial gain’( Institute of Sport Sponsorship, funded in 1985)
17England captain David Beckham earns millions just from all his sponsorship deals
18RACE, TRADITION AND CULTURE in some countries National Sports are more popular.Sport is important with professional performers having a high profilewomen’s sport is still disapproved ofoccasions in past when countries have been excluded from participation in international sporting events because of their discrimination against ethnic groupsbetween 1964 and 1992 South Africa were banned from the Olympic Games as the culture of the white people who ruled the country would not accept that white and black people are equalunder the policy of Apartheid black and white people were not allowed to mix.
19Local and National Facilities When assessing what facilities are provided within the UK and whether they have an effect on participation in sport and activity. Both local provision and national provision must take focus.LOCAL PROVISION - the major providers of facilities in most localities are:LOCAL AUTHORIYPRIVATE ENTERPRISEPRIVATE AND VOLUNTARY CLUBS AND ASSOCIATIONS
20LOCAL AUTHORITYthey encourage participation through:the provision of public facilitiesthe dual use of school facilitiesthe organisation of special sessions at sports centresPRIVATE ENTERPRISEa number of recreational and sporting facilities are now offered by private health and sports clubsmembers normally pay a joining fee followed by their membership. Non-member cannot use the facilities.
21PRIVATE AND VOLUNTARY CLUBS AND ASSOCIATIONS there is a difference between private facilities that are run as a business and those run by their members which exist to provide playing and social facilities for themthese non-profit making clubs and associations are usually run by elected committeesthe committees work voluntary for the good of the rest of the membershipNATIONAL PROVISIONsimilar to local provision, the provision of national facilities comes from a mixture of public and private funding
22THE SPORTS COUNCILUK sport (formerly known as the Sports Council) is an organisation which deals with the development of sport and sporting performances in the UK as a whole. Each home country also has its own sports council, for example, SPORT ENGLAND. Sport England is concerned with encouraging participation and performance in sport and recreational activity
23NATIONAL CENTRES OF EXCELLENCE centres of excellence are used:by sports governing bodiesto support performers at all levelsfor training and coaching programmesto provide injury clinicsby elite athletes, players and teamsto further educate coaches
24The six centres of excellence are: Manchester - CyclingBisham Abbey - TennisPlas y Brehin - Outdoor PursuitsLilleshall - Football and GymnasticsHolme Pierrepoint - Water SportsCrystal Palace - Athletics, Swimming and Diving
26THE ADMINISTRATION OF SPORT a new development which came out of the Soviet involvement in sport in the 1960s, 70s and 80s was its use of special schools, or institutes, which existed solely for the purpose of producing excellence in sport.These institutes provided facilities for the development of athletics, coaches, sports, scientists and a host of related servicesin the 1990s a similar structure started to build up in the UKBritain’s poor performance in Atlanta in the Olympic Games said to have an effect in the restructuring the way sport is organised in the UK
27the current structure is centred upon an organisation called UK Sport UK Sport is to administer the United Kingdom Sports Institute (UKSI).The English Institutes of Sport is currently a network of nine regional centresthe current slogan on which Sport England bases its activities isMORE PEOPLE, MORE PLACES, MORE MEDALS
28While medals are important, Sport England believes it is also essential to attract as many people as possible into active participation