2 Chapter Outline Social Classes Social Class and Sport Activity Control of SportClass Mobility in SportSummary
3 Economic Class Divisions Social class The categories of people who share similar positions in society based on their economic level, education, occupation, and social interaction.Social stratification The assignment of class based on inequalities in society such as power, prestige, and wealth.
4 Individual opportunities in life are affected by class status. Key PointIndividual opportunities in life are affected by class status.
5 Developing CapitalEconomic capital The financial resources that one has or controls. These resources affect how we see the world and opportunities available to us.Social capital Resources available to a person based on memberships, relationships, and both social and business networks. Social capital is affected by family and friends.Cultural capital The skills and abilities we have based on our education and life experiences.
6 Capital affects the sports we watch, play, and succeed in. Key PointCapital affects the sports we watch, play, and succeed in.
7 How does social class affect sport involvement, sport opportunities, and leadership or decision-making opportunities in sport?
8 Social Class Social class status affects sport opportunities. Upper classWealthy (with disposable income)Exclusive memberships, used to build social capitalCan afford exceptional coaching and sport experiencesHave the highest rates of sport participationPlay exclusive sports such as golf, tennis, poloMore likely to use health and fitness equipment(continued)
9 Social Class (continued) Upper-middle classProfessionals such as lawyers, managers, physiciansMany sport experiences and opportunities such as gymnastics, swimming, and archeryMiddle classMake careful decisions about expensesMany sport opportunities in communityLower classLow annual income ($18,810 U.S.)Play team sports available and subsidized in the communityPlay strength, speed, and daring sports such as boxing wrestling, racing
10 Access and Barriers to Sport Cost of high-performance trainingRequires economic, social, and cultural capitalTop coaching and training can run as high as $75,000 U.S. each year in some individual sportsMust pay for coaching, facilities, physical training, travel, equipmentTeam sportsOften run and subsidized by communityAllows most kids to playCoaching is much more affordable(continued)
11 Access and Barriers to Sport (continued) High school sportsAffluent schools win more championshipsAfford better facilities, equipment, and coachesParticipants start sports earlier and receive more trainingAffluent schools win more female championships than male championshipsCommunity leaguesServe more children at a modest expenseProvide training even in traditionally upper-class sports
12 Who Controls Sport?Local communities: Power is in the hands of administrators and boards of directors (parents, politicians).National level: Power is in the hands of the people who control the money for the organization.Often from upper class or upper-middle classMedia moguls (Rupert Murdoch), league commissioners, and superstar athletesOften White males
13 Key PointPeople with power in sport have the ability to promote or prevent change in the game.
14 Social Mobility Through Sport Educational opportunitiesNeed to stay academically eligible to playPossibility for athletic scholarships (sport helps build social and cultural capital)College athletes may have more opportunities than nonathletesLeaders in business often attribute success to lessons learned through sportIs class mobility through sport possible?Unrealistic expectationOnly 0.2% of high school athletes play professionallyBest opportunity is to advance is through education
15 Summary Opportunities in life are affected by social class. Social class affects the sports that we play.Money allows access to elite competition in many sports.Power in sport lies with those who have the ability to make changes. Often these people are White males.Sport can provide some opportunities for social mobility, but it also provides some false hope.
16 On Deck… Questions and comments Assignments and readings Next chapter: Special Populations and SportPeople with disabilitiesAging adults