2 Gender Issues in SportToday it is possible for women to take part in almost any sport. Changes in today's society have given women more opportunity to control their own lives and chose to participate in the sport of their choice. This was not always so. The history of sport is mainly the history of men's sport.TASKList the sports in which you have seen women participating ?
3 What needs to be changed? Stereotyping means having fixed views on a group of people. Girls in the past were encouraged to play with dolls, learn to cook and to keep themselves clean. In contrast boys were encouraged to play, climb trees and get dirty.Children were and still are brought up according to these views. As a result boys generally have greater opportunity to develop skills in sport and the confidence that goes with it. Sport has high status with boys, and they will look up to friends that are good at sport. In contrast many girls have been turned off PE and do not consider sporting achievement to be important.
4 What needs to be changed? (cont) Gender stereotyping continues into adult life. Some sports are still seen as unsuitable for women. Women will often think that playing sport will make them unattractive.Married women are expected to take responsibility for the home and children, which reduces the time they have for sport. Sport for the mother is a low priority in family lifeMale sports dominate TV and Newspapers, however these views are changing and stereotyping is being broken down.
5 What is being done?In order to change these views and give women equallity in sport the Government has had a number of campaigns. All of the campaigns have had the following aims:-To improve girls skills and develop a positive attitude towards sport.Increase the opportunities for women to take part in sport.Increase the opportunities for women to improve their level of performance.To increase the number of women involved in organised sport.To encourage all organisations to have equal opportunities.To improve communication about women in sport.The ‘Women's Sports Foundation’ supports women's sport. It has a national action plan for women's and Girls Sport.
6 Women’s Sports Foundation The Women's sports Foundation strives for equality in sport. Their web site isRead the following article on Women, Media and Sport and answer the questionnaire from the Women's Sports Foundation.
7 Black and Ethnic Minorities In Sport In our multicultural society, people of all races and ethnic background take part in sport at all levels. As a result of this we often assume that they face no problems in sport. However there is discrimination and disadvantage in sport as there is in everyday life
8 What needs to Change?Racism means not treating people of different races equally. Racists often hold stereotypical views about people from different backgrounds. This leads to sporting myths, such as ‘black people can not swim at top levels’. This is nonsense.Personal racism is seen when black and ethnic minority people are made to feel unwelcome by individuals and sports clubs. A shameful example can be found in football, when England played Spain in 2005, when ever an English player of black origin touched the ball the racist Spanish fans made ‘Monkey’ Chants. There is no place for this disgraceful act in sport.
9 What has to change? (cont) Racism is a major problem in spite of many efforts to eliminate it from sport.A contributing factor to racism is socioeconomics such as employment, pay and social class. In this country people from Black and Ethnic backgrounds are over represented in the unemployed and poorly paid. This can result in them having less money to spend on sport and leisure activities.There are many different cultures in Britain, each with its own set of beliefs about important areas. Some of these beliefs will affect sport. For example some women can not participate in mixed sports for religious reasons.
10 What is being done?In 1993 the Sports Council published a policy and their objectives still apply. Their aims are to work towards the elimination of racial disadvantage and discrimination. In order to achieve better quality sport for black and ethnic minority people.There are 6 main objectives.To raise awareness of racially inequality in sport.To increase the number of black and ethnic minority decision makers in sport.To increase the number of black and ethnic minority sports people involved in sports organisations.To improve skill and develop positive attitude to an active life.To increase opportunities to take part in sport.To increase opportunities to improve the level of performance of black and ethnic minority people.
11 ‘Kick it out’In 1993 the Professional Footballers Association and the commission for Racial Equality set up the ‘Let’s Kick Racism out of Football’ campaign. It is still active now but is called ‘Kick it Out’. There are many other campaigns in other sports that fight to ensure racial equality.
12 Disability and SportPeople with disability have much to offer the world of sport. As well as the top athletes, there are many ordinary disabled people who can benefit from sport. Sport allows everybody to stay fit and offers the chance to socialise with others. How ever people with disabilities do face serious obstacles to participate in sport.TaskMake a list of the type ofobstacles you think standin the way of disabledpeople who want to takepart in sport.
13 Disability in sport, what needs to be changed? It is not always possible for disabled people to get to sporting events. Transport and facilities may be difficult. There may not be suitable doors, entrances or lifts.Plans for facilities, funding for events do not always take into account the needs of competitors and spectators with disabilities.Planning should include training forthe people who work with sportspersons with disabilities.Sport centres and clubs do notautomatically make provisionsfor everyone, including thedisabled.
14 Disability in sport, what needs to be changed? (cont) Governing bodies do not hold disabled events within their able bodies championships.People with disabilities may not be aware of organisations catering for their sporting needs.People with disability have had little opportunity to develop their sporting skills.People with disabilities may not beable to afford the cost to taking part.The integration of school pupils withDisabilities into PE lessons presentsMany challenges
15 What is being done?In 1993 the Sports Council published a policy on Disability and Sport. The aims and objectives from this policy still apply to this day. The Sports council aims to ensure equality of opportunity for people with disabilities to take part in sport and recreation at a level of their choice. The main objectives are:-To raise the profile of people with disabilities in sport.To make sure plans for sport include the needs of the disabled.To provide opportunities for the disabled to participate in sport.To improve access to sport for people with a disability.To encourage the involvement of people with a disability into international sport.To use all resources and to seek extra finance.To make sure sport meets the needs of the disabled.
16 Older people and SportIn general people become less physically active as they get older.What needs to be changed?If older people have not exercised for a long time then it is hard to get their bodies back working again.Some may not have had the opportunity to learn the skills when they were younger.Others may have illness that mean they need to be cautious when exercising.Older people live on pensions and have limited money to spend on sport.Older people may find it difficult to get to sports facilities.Sport and the media is dominated by young people. There is not enough publicity for older people to achieve a high standard.
17 What is being done?In 1983 the Sports Council started its campaign ‘ Sport for All – 50+ All to Play For’. This is still active today. It encourages older people to take part in sport. It emphasises not just the health benefits but also the social benefits of an active lifestyle. Sport provides the opportunity to meet .Local authority Leisure Centres and Recreation departments usually offer a full range of activities for the 50+ age group and at discounted prices.