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Revision essentials 12th June Plan your Revision timetable Revision environment 20 minute chunks Vary the practice.

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Presentation on theme: "Revision essentials 12th June Plan your Revision timetable Revision environment 20 minute chunks Vary the practice."— Presentation transcript:


2 Revision essentials 12th June Plan your Revision timetable Revision environment 20 minute chunks Vary the practice

3 Revision strategies Read your notes Notes on your Notes Chunk cards Keywords Question Practice Top up Reading Writing practice

4 Historical Study Historical Study Setting the Scene Sport reflects the Society in which it is played

5 Sports are as old as time ! SPORT is young PE is a modern phenomenon 1939 syllabus sport = high organisation and highly sophisticated

6 Sports development Sports are developmental They come from : CONQUEST e.g. Colonialisation OR SOCIAL HIERARCHY e.g.gentry

7 Get your dates right 1600s 1700s 1800s 1900s 2000s C17th C18th C19th C20th C21st Pre – Indus Pre –into industrial Indus Post indus

8 The Historical Development of Sport Ancient Origins 1) POPULAR RECREATION C15 - 17 th 2)PUBLIC SCHOOLC18-19 th 3) RATIONALISATION & INDUSTRIALISATIONC19th 4) 20th CENTURY DEVELOPMENTS (PE) C20th

9 Revision Chunks Popular Recreation Athleticism Rational Recreation Development of P.E.

10 Overview of sport before 1800s Festival games and the role of the church, court and peasant - Popular recreations 2-3 examples - characteristics of games (x8) - characteristics of society (x8) - difference between gentry and peasant sport (Real tennis v mob football) - Patronage of church/local gentry

11 Popular Recreations Ashbourne Game Haxey Hood Game Stamford Bull Running Robert Dovers Games Hallaton Bottle Game The Derby Game Alnwick Game Lutterworth Mob Hockey St Columb hurling

12 Pre 1800- characteristics P L U C I C R O W re ocalised ncoded ruel ndustrial ourtly/Popular ural ccasional ager

13 Athleticism Sport as a means of social control within the C19th Public schools - Public school games 2-3 examples - characteristics of games (x8) - characteristics of school society (x8) - Muscular Christianity and the Rec Ethic - Tom Browns School days

14 Public School Case studies Eton Wall Game Rugby Football Harrow Football Winchester Football Cricket Fives (Rugby/Eton/Winchester) Hare & Hounds

15 Public School- characteristics A T H L E T I C I S M ll Round - Body & Mind emperament ealth ohesion/competition nstrument of Education portsmanship uscular Christianity eadership ndeavour eamwork ntegrity

16 Phases of Development of Sport in Public Schools ïBoys as undisciplined - animals ïMob Games ïField Sports ïFolk Games ïCricket - acceptable team game ïImprovised Country Pursuits ïBoys in control Phase 1 - The Barabarians Turn of C19th

17 Phases of Development of Sport in Public Schools ïReforms of Dr Arnold 1828 - 1842 ïGames as a medium of social control ïTechnical development ïRegular Inter House competitions ïLink - Christian Gentlemen & Manliness ïTom Browns School Days Phase 2 - Arnoldian 1830 - 1860

18 Phases of Development of Sport in Public Schools ïAthleticism - the Cult ïRegular Inter - school fixtures ïOxbridge as the melting pot ïSpread of Middle Class Schools ïExcellent facilities ïValues of Athleticism ïImpact on Society Phase 3 - The Cult & Philistine Copies - 1860 +

19 Rational Sport Impact of changes in society; industrial, transport and urban - characteristics of Rational games (x8) - characteristics of Rational society (x8) - case studies (football/tennis/athletics) - spectatorism = professionals =commercialism

20 This confusion led to the most important meeting in footballs development held at the Free Masons Tavern in London. Actually took 6 meetings to eventually agree on a common set of rules This was not an easy process and their was much debate and votes which at on meting led to a splinter group led bay the Black heath Club leaving to form the Rugby Football Union

21 A National set of Rules Quickly spread across the country Facilitated by an advanced industrial society Also began to exported around the British Empire and via trade links

22 Rationalisation of Sport Codification and administration of sport Codification = The creation and maintenance of rules After the Industrial Revolution most people lived and worked in urban areas and the influence of the rural elements from the popular recreation era steadily declined. Modern Sport is also urban sport

23 Societal change that led to RATIONAL RECREATION Societal determinants Urbanisation large population requiring recreative space & entertainment Industrialisation factory system and machine time Work Conditions gradual increase in free time, Saturday 1/2 day, 10 hour Act, Early Closing Movement. Economics capitalism and patronage, works teams - professional clubs

24 The move towards Rational Recreation Societal Change PRE INDUSTRIAL Feudal (gentlemen-peasant) feudalism rural cottage industry free time church constraints horse drawn word of mouth POST INDUSTRIAL Gentlemen - middle class - workers capitalism urban manufacturing coal/iron machine time church support railways popular press

25 The move towards Rational Recreation Sports Change POP SPORT localised rural cruel/violent courtly-popular ritual occasional limited coding wagering RATIONAL SPORT local-regional-national rural - urban channeled aggression gentry-middle-working moral regular formal codification gambling curtailed

26 The spread of the Games Ethic - Oxbridge melting pot - Cambridge Football Rules - Role of the Blues and Varsity matches - Spread of the Games ethic - Sport followed the flag - De Coubertin and international sport

27 Oxbridge Melting Pots The Universities of Cambridge and Oxford played an important role in the development of sport They were the first place where compromise rules were developed. They also developed regular fixtures - Varsity matches Blues became important role models & teachers

28 Diffusion of Sport through the Empire C A T olonial rmy eachers atrons niversity ndustry hurch lubs dministration P U I C A

29 The need for more regular fixtures led to the formation of the Football League in 1888 The first twelve clubs were Accrington Stanley, Aston Villa, Blackburn Rovers, Bolton Wanderers, Burnley, Derby County, Everton, Notts County, Preston North End, Stoke City, West Bromwich Albion, Wolverhampton Wanderers. These were all from the Midlands and North West, all professional and all dominated by working class players

30 Major Games and the Working Classes Games return to the people 1) Why were elementary children given drill instead of games? 2) Why did factory owners promote football & cricket for their workers? 3) Why is league football played on a Saturday afternoon? 4) Why has professional Sunday cricket only recently become legalised 5) Why didnt working class girls play football? 6) What has Broken Time got to do with rugby and the lower classes? 7) What effect did the growth of the railways have on the spread of major games? 8) What was the Churchs attitude to sport? 9) Why are English batsmen still encouraged to walk if they think theyre out?

31 20th Century developments Spectatorism Professionalism commercialisation Influence of the media

32 Cheap rail excursions meant that the seaside and the countryside came within reach of many ordinary working people for the fist time.

33 The development of PE Development of PE in state schools (Elementary) during C20th European influences (Swedish/German/De Coubertin) - Forster Education Act - Adoption of German Gymnastics/McClaren - Increasing influence of Ling/Osterberg - Boer War – Model Course Military PT - Tug of War- Military/Education/Medical - 1933 last syllabus/WW II influence

34 Development of PE in Elementary Schools Key developments C19th - European Roots Ling and Guth Muths 1870 - Forster Education Act Made education compulsory for all children 5 - 13 1902 - Model Course Compulsory military training in schools required to lay the foundations of military spirit in the nation.

35 Key developments 1904 - Education Board Syllabus An attempt to reduce the military influence 1909 - Syllabus of Physical Training Written by Medical Board - emphasis on therapeutic gymnastics 1919 - Syllabus Reflecting horrors of Great War - introduced recreational & morale boosting activities Development of PE in Elementary Schools

36 Key developments 1933 - Syllabus of Physical Training Last Board of education syllabus split into 2 sections 5 - 11 years and 11- 14 years 1944 - Education Act Made secondary education was available to all children - rebuild of schools after Blitz 1952 - Moving & Growing Ministry of Education advisory PE publication followed by PLANNING THE PROGRAME (1954) Development of PE in Elementary Schools

37 History - Example During the 19th Century Oxford and Cambridge Universities acted as melting pots in terms of the historical development of sport. Using examples, explain the role these universities played in the development of sport (6 marks) June 2000

38 History - Answer lStudents had come from different schools lHad interest/enthusiasm for sport but difficult to play each other lNeed for compromise rules lDifferent school members write up /rationalisation/codification of rules lExample - Cambridge rules of football lGraduates took games into society - football/rugby/ athletics Varsity games led to increase in interest/standards lexample - Boat race/rugby/ athletic meets/cricket

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