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Revision essentials 12th June Plan your Revision timetable

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Presentation on theme: "Revision essentials 12th June Plan your Revision timetable"— Presentation transcript:

1 Revision essentials 12th June Plan your Revision timetable
Revision environment 20 minute chunks Vary the practice

2 Revision strategies Read your notes Notes on your Notes Chunk cards
Keywords Question Practice Top up Reading Writing practice

3 Historical Study Setting the Scene Sport reflects the Society in which it is played

4 Sports are as old as time !
“SPORT” is young PE is a modern phenomenon 1939 syllabus “sport = high organisation and highly sophisticated

5 Sports development Sports are developmental They come from :
CONQUEST e.g. Colonialisation OR SOCIAL HIERARCHY e.g.gentry

6 Get your dates right C17th C18th C19th C20th C21st Pre – Indus
Pre –into industrial Indus Post indus 1600’s 1700’s 1800’s 1900’s 2000’s

7 The Historical Development of Sport

8 Athleticism Rational Recreation Development of P.E. Revision Chunks
Popular Recreation Athleticism Rational Recreation Development of P.E.

9 Overview of sport before 1800’s
Festival games and the role of the church, court and peasant - Popular recreations 2-3 examples - characteristics of games (x8) - characteristics of society (x8) - difference between gentry and peasant sport (Real tennis v mob football) - Patronage of church/local gentry

10 Popular Recreations Ashbourne Game Haxey Hood Game
Stamford Bull Running Robert Dover’s Games Hallaton Bottle Game The Derby Game Alnwick Game Lutterworth Mob Hockey St Columb hurling

11 Pre 1800- characteristics re ocalised ncoded ruel ndustrial
ourtly/Popular ural ccasional ager P L U C I R O W

12 Athleticism Check List Sport as a means of social control
within the C19th Public schools - Public school games 2-3 examples - characteristics of games (x8) - characteristics of school society (x8) - Muscular Christianity and the Rec Ethic - Tom Brown’s School days

13 Public School Case studies
Eton Wall Game Rugby Football Harrow Football Winchester Football Cricket Fives (Rugby/Eton/Winchester) Hare & Hounds

14 Public School- characteristics
M ll Round - Body & Mind emperament ealth ohesion/competition nstrument of Education portsmanship uscular Christianity eadership ndeavour eamwork ntegrity

15 Phases of Development of Sport in Public Schools
Phase 1 - The Barabarians Turn of C19th Boys as undisciplined - animals Mob Games Field Sports Folk Games Cricket - acceptable team game Improvised Country Pursuits Boys in control

16 Phases of Development of Sport in Public Schools
Phase 2 - Arnoldian Reforms of Dr Arnold Games as a medium of social control Technical development Regular Inter House competitions Link - Christian Gentlemen & Manliness Tom Brown’s School Days

17 Phases of Development of Sport in Public Schools
Phase 3 - The Cult & Philistine Copies Athleticism - the “Cult” Regular Inter - school fixtures “Oxbridge” as the melting pot Spread of Middle Class Schools Excellent facilities Values of Athleticism Impact on Society

18 Rational Sport Check List - characteristics of Rational society (x8)
Impact of changes in society; industrial, transport and urban - characteristics of Rational games (x8) - characteristics of Rational society (x8) - case studies (football/tennis/athletics) - spectatorism = professionals =commercialism Check List

19 This confusion led to the most important meeting in footballs development held at the Free Masons Tavern in London. Actually took 6 meetings to eventually agree on a common set of rules This was not an easy process and their was much debate and votes which at on meting led to a splinter group led bay the Black heath Club leaving to form the Rugby Football Union

20 A National set of Rules Quickly spread across the country
Facilitated by an advanced industrial society Also began to exported around the British Empire and via trade links

21 Rationalisation of Sport
Codification and administration of sport Codification = The creation and maintenance of rules After the Industrial Revolution most people lived and worked in urban areas and the influence of the rural elements from the popular recreation era steadily declined. Modern Sport is also urban sport

22 Societal change that led to RATIONAL RECREATION
Societal determinants Urbanisation large population requiring recreative space & entertainment Industrialisation factory system and machine time Work Conditions gradual increase in free time, Saturday 1/2 day, 10 hour Act, Early Closing Movement. Economics capitalism and patronage, works teams - professional clubs

23 The move towards Rational Recreation Societal Change
PRE INDUSTRIAL Feudal (gentlemen-peasant) feudalism rural cottage industry free time church constraints horse drawn word of mouth POST INDUSTRIAL Gentlemen - middle class - workers capitalism urban manufacturing coal/iron machine time church support railways popular press

24 The move towards Rational Recreation Sports Change
POP SPORT localised rural cruel/violent courtly-popular ritual occasional limited coding wagering RATIONAL SPORT local-regional-national rural - urban channeled aggression gentry-middle-working moral regular formal codification gambling curtailed

25 The spread of the Games Ethic
Check List - Oxbridge melting pot - Cambridge Football Rules - Role of the ‘Blues’ and Varsity matches - Spread of the ‘Games ethic’ - Sport followed the flag - De Coubertin and international sport

26 Oxbridge Melting Pots The Universities of Cambridge and Oxford played an important role in the development of sport They were the first place where compromise rules were developed. They also developed regular fixtures - Varsity matches Blues became important role models & teachers

27 Diffusion of Sport through the Empire
olonial rmy eachers atrons niversity ndustry hurch lubs dministration C A T P U I C A

28 The need for more regular fixtures led to the formation of the Football League in 1888
The first twelve clubs were Accrington Stanley, Aston Villa, Blackburn Rovers, Bolton Wanderers, Burnley, Derby County, Everton, Notts County, Preston North End, Stoke City, West Bromwich Albion, Wolverhampton Wanderers. These were all from the Midlands and North West, all professional and all dominated by working class players

29 Major Games and the Working Classes “Games return to the people”
1) Why were elementary children given drill instead of games? 2) Why did factory owners promote football & cricket for their workers? 3) Why is league football played on a Saturday afternoon? 4) Why has professional Sunday cricket only recently become legalised 5) Why didn’t working class girls play football? 6) What has “Broken Time” got to do with rugby and the lower classes? 7) What effect did the growth of the railways have on the spread of major games? 8) What was the Church’s attitude to sport? 9) Why are English batsmen still encouraged to “walk” if they think they’re out?

30 20th Century developments
Spectatorism Professionalism commercialisation Influence of the media

31 Cheap rail excursions meant that the seaside and the countryside came within reach of many ordinary
working people for the fist time.

32 The development of PE Development of PE in state schools
(Elementary) during C20th European influences (Swedish/German/De Coubertin) - Forster Education Act - Adoption of German Gymnastics/McClaren - Increasing influence of Ling/Osterberg - Boer War – Model Course Military PT - ‘Tug of War’- Military/Education/Medical last syllabus/WW II influence

33 Development of PE in Elementary Schools
Key developments C19th - European Roots Ling and Guth Muths Forster Education Act Made education compulsory for all children Model Course Compulsory military training in schools required to lay the foundations of military spirit in the nation.

34 Development of PE in Elementary Schools
Key developments Education Board Syllabus An attempt to reduce the military influence Syllabus of Physical Training Written by Medical Board - emphasis on therapeutic gymnastics Syllabus Reflecting horrors of Great War - introduced recreational & morale boosting activities

35 Development of PE in Elementary Schools
Key developments Syllabus of Physical Training Last Board of education syllabus split into 2 sections years and years Education Act Made secondary education was available to all children - rebuild of schools after “ Blitz” Moving & Growing Ministry of Education advisory PE publication followed by PLANNING THE PROGRAME (1954)

36 History - Example During the 19th Century Oxford and Cambridge Universities acted as “melting pots” in terms of the historical development of sport. Using examples, explain the role these universities played in the development of sport (6 marks) June 2000

37 History - Answer Students had come from different schools
Had interest/enthusiasm for sport but difficult to play each other Need for compromise rules Different school members write up /rationalisation/codification of rules Example - Cambridge rules of football Graduates took games into society - football/rugby/ athletics Varsity games led to increase in interest/standards example - Boat race/rugby/ athletic meets/cricket

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