Presentation on theme: "State schools Pre-industrialPost-Industrial Eighteenth CenturyNineteenth CenturyTwentieth Century Popular Recreation 170018001900 2000 Public School developments."— Presentation transcript:
State schools Pre-industrialPost-Industrial Eighteenth CenturyNineteenth CenturyTwentieth Century Popular Recreation Public School developments - Athleticism Rational Recreation
What do we need to know? 1870Boer War WWI WWII
School drill at end of C19 Impact of Boer War – Establishment of 1902 Model Course – Early Syllabuses of Physical Training Effects of WW1 and adoption of 1919 and 1933 Syllabuses Effects of WWII – 1950s: Moving and Growing & Planning The Programme
Almost 40% of army recruits rejected as too unfit in 1866 Forster Education Act establishes board schools (state schools) – School compulsory from leaving age raised to 12 Board schools – very little space for games
How? – Authoritarian – Command and Response Why? – Fitness for the army – Discipline To replicate the effect of games in public schools Where? – Limited space/facilities Who? – Army NCO’s (Non-commissioned officers, 1870’s) – Qualified class teachers from 1890’s What? – 1870’s, military Drill – 1890’s Swedish Drill – 1900’s – Games seen as an alternative to Swedish Drill
Who Where Why What How
Background – Poor performance in Boer War (Proposed by Colonel Fox from the War Office) – Military needs now outweighed educational principles “It is important that the short time claimed for physical training should be wholly devoted to useful exercises. No part of that time should be wasted on what is merely spectacular or entertaining.” (Model Course of Physical Training 1902)
Syllabus contained Military drill, Exercises, weapon training and deep breathing Known as ‘The Model Course’ Taught by NCO’s or teachers they had trained Dull, Repetitive and Cheap Small spaces (playgrounds) but large numbers Designed to promote fitness for military service, Training in weapons handling and discipline/obedience. Children treated as soldiers
Why? Military Fitness Discipline and Obedience Health
Huge loss of life – World War 1 – Post-War flu epidemic Drill was blamed for lack of fitness of working class Fisher Education Act 1918 promoted holiday and school camps, playing fields and school swimming pools. The 1 st Child centred approach Much broader content than any earlier syllabus – However, some teachers stayed with the old ways
Exercises and positions were the same as 1909 syllabus – Now referred to as Physical Training (P.T.) However, much more games – Almost half the lesson on ‘free movement’, including games and dancing. Much more informal – More freedom for teachers and pupils Still no trained P.T. teachers
Set against depression of 1930’s – Many working classes unemployed A massive development from the syllabus of the past – Much more progression towards Physical Education of the Future. Different sections for different age groups. The last syllabus under George Newman. – Convergence of Athletics, gymnastics, games skills and group work. – Also stated good nourishment, effective medical inspection and hygiene were essential for the development of the child
The syllabus was designed to work on – Therapeutic results – Good posture – Holistic aims Development of mind and body – Good physique Still direct teaching style for most – Although some decentralised parts to the lesson Often done in the new school’s gymnasia Outdoor lessons recommended for health benefits Encouraged to wear correct kit.
Background – Education Act 1944 required playing fields for all schools – School leaving age raised to 15 Lots of expansion in Physical Activity in schools Influences – WW2 needed thinking soldiers, and this developed into the need for thinking children Modern dance employed as creative approach Problem solving approach recommended in many schools
Contained – agility exercise, gymnastics, dance, games and swimming Teachers – Guided rather than directed Lots of discovery centred tasks – Child could interpret the tasks for themselves Designed to develop – Physical, social and cognitive skills – Enjoyment Facilities – Post war re-building period meant lots of new facilities – Used full apparatus, ropes, bars, boxes, mats etc.