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AS MOD 2 SOCIO-CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL EFFECTS ON PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION.

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Presentation on theme: "AS MOD 2 SOCIO-CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL EFFECTS ON PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION."— Presentation transcript:

1 AS MOD 2 SOCIO-CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL EFFECTS ON PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION STATE SCHOOL EDUCATION

2 Pre 1870No Formal state education – some patchy church provision DATES DEVELOPMENTS IN STATE SCHOOLING PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES 1870Foster Education Act – foundations of state education laidDrill training/Swedish gymnastics Boer War Military drill (via Model Course) War Office exercisesThe Model Course 1904/1909/ 1919 CENTRALISED gov control of phys activities in state schEarly syllabuses of Phys Training 1933Last centralised Syllabus of Physical TrainingContent more varied 1944Butler Education Act More of an educational focus 1952Influence of CHILD CENTERED learning in Primary SchoolsMOVING and GROWING – Publication for Primary Schools 1988Education Reform Act National Curriculum introducedWider range of activities to be taught with attainment levels (CHILD CENTERED – Basing a programme of study around a child’s physical, cognitive, social and emotional needs)

3 - Prior to 1870, working classes had no formal education other than that provided by some parishes introduction of Education Act, compulsory for ALL children to a STATE SCHOOL - Met with MIXED FEELINGS – working classes not happy as children would no longer be working and they would lose vital income AIMS - Provide education for working classes - A better lifestyle, keeping young children away from unsafe factory work and employers required a more DISCIPLINED and EDUCATED workforce - Working classes needed to acquire basic skills (3 R’s) – reading - writing - arithmetic - Instilled MORAL values as Church attendances were falling - As working classes were the ‘workers’, obeying command from employers, discipline and obeying commands were important values for them RATHER than LEADERSHIP and DECISION-MAKING skills being promoted by public schools for MIDDLE and UPPER classes

4 CHARACTERISTICS - Small, cramped spaces with no recreational facilities imposed restrictions on activities they could offer - Philosophy that working classes would have no need of recreation - Schools built in LOCAL areas - Day schools - Catered for both boys and girls - Most age groups taught together - Free of charge

5 PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES Swedish Gymnastics – formed basis of early state school phys activity - Based on THERAPEUTIC principles and scientific knowledge of body - Free standing and free flowing - Taught in INSTRUCTIONAL style Following Boer War ( ), British losses blamed on Swedish Gymnastics not being physically or mentally rigorous Needed to increase HEALTH and FITNESS of WORKING CLASSES and impose DISCIPLINE , Swedish Gymnastics replaced by MODEL COURSE (Military Drill exercises) Taught by low ranking NCO’s who were unpopular with teachers Children taught in COMMAND-OBEY style Exercises were mainly:free standing static use of sticks as dummy weapons

6 Q.) Why would the command-obey style be considered suitable for state school children? Working classes deemed as lacking discipline, not as intelligent, not as morally equipped and not as fit Q.) Why did the Model Course only last 2 years? It had no educational focus, did not cater for children’s needs and was questionable in its intention of improving the health and fitness of children. The exercises were static and dull! In 2 groupsGroup 1 presentation on “Background to the Model Course” and its “Influences” Group 2 presentation on “Objectives, content and methodology of the Model Course”

7 SYLLABUSES OF PHYSICAL TRAINING WHY? Gov needed a prescriptive syllabus that a teacher could follow easily NCO’s no longer used in schools Gov needed to stress importance of physical and educative effects of sporting activities PROBLEM? Radical changes to content could not change over night Schools still had limited facilities and working classes still required to be obedient Changes would happen gradually over a number of years

8 LAST SYLLABUS 1933 Children encouraged to use imagination and emphasis on development of skills Growing interaction between teachers and pupils In 3 GroupsGroup 1 presentation on similarities and differences between 1902 and 1904 syllabuses Group 2 presentation on similarities and differences between 1904 and 1919 syllabuses Group 3 presentation on similarities and differences between 1919 and 1933 syllabuses

9 INFLUENCE OF THE WORLD WARS WWIGrowing appreciation of value of recreational activities in boosting morale of troops WWII- Growing influence of female teachers as males enlisted - Apparatus in schools was as a direct result of commando training - The value of these activities and styles of teaching emerged to develop children’s PHYSICAL, MENTAL, SOCIAL, and EMOTIONAL needs (as seen in Moving and Growing publication) MOVING AND GROWING


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