Presentation on theme: "St Johns PE Revision Course AQA AS PED 1 Session 1c Opportunities for participation Historical Factors."— Presentation transcript:
St Johns PE Revision Course AQA AS PED 1 Session 1c Opportunities for participation Historical Factors
Historical, social and cultural factors Public School and emergence of rational recreation - games Public Schools & the concept of fair play Development of physical activity in state schools from military drill to movement Developments in state provision and increase in participation
Public Schools & Sport Went from despised mob games to revered team sports Within 50 years What? How? Why?
Violent, Drunken Male No specialisation Local - rules, character Force, strength not skill Lacked structure – pitch, spectators, players Mob Football - Characteristics
Middle class values - civilising Church Authority crack down Urbanisation Public School effect Lack of control over time - work Mob Football - Decline
Acceptance of common rules between visiting schools and teams Status & authority given to Sixth Form Development of loyalty to House Development inter-school matches Skills, Tactic Development Coaching –Professionals, Blues ‘Game Rules’ moral/ethical rules based on Christianity Development house matches Development of time/facilities Development of internal rules/laws Playing mob football & field sports Development of Rational Games in Public Schools Jan07Q2 Ans
Public Schools 1800 - 1850 Intolerance - Tolerance Places for the ruling class, harsh environment, often uncontrolled Power of the boys - emphasis on physical prowess Futile attempts to ban mob football Arnold – Headmaster – Evangelical Christian Christian ‘gentlemen’ – Muscular Christianity Cricket, rowing were established but different versions of mob football
Public Schools 1850- 1880 Tolerance – Enthusiasm Use boys enthusiasm for sport to gain social control Give VI form status in return for support – control through rules/respect VI Form – sporting ‘heroes’ – developed rules/ etiquette – athleticism - amateurism Team games for character training, group loyalty Inter House – Inter School - competitiveness Develop prowess – time, facilities, coaching!
Public Schools 1800 – 1890 General Themes Occupation of free time - social control – sixth form Development of social cohesion - group loyalty Method of character development – religious connections Cult status within schools – intellectualism suffering Victorian values – service
Public Schools 1800 – 1890 General Themes Athleticism Moral integrity Physical Endeavour Revival of Greek ideals Reflection of religious revival/interest during period Jan03Q2 Ans
Old Boys University Church BusinessArmy Colonial Service Works Teams Church Teams “Bit of Britain” All ranks teams WHY? Public Schools 1800 – 1890 Into Society
Factors Affecting Development of Rational Recreation/Sport in Society Rational Recreation Social Organisational Economic Class Jun04Q2
Rational Rec – Social Factors Social Church Class YMCA Sunday School Muscular Christianity Boys Clubs W. Class Moral Reform Gentleman Amateur Middle Class Urbanisation Public Schools?
Rational Rec – Economic factors Economic Industrial Reform Trade UnionsLeisure Time A Right? Work Discipline Media Travel Public Schools?
Rational Rec – Organisational Factors Organisational Codification Stringent Admin Regularisation Rules Code of Conduct Seasons Match Days NGB Competitive Structure Public Schools? June05Q1
Development of Rational Recreation/Sport in Society RR Social Organisational Economic Church Class YMCA Sunday School Muscular Christianity Boys Clubs W. Class Moral Reform Gentleman Amateur Middle Class Urbanisation Industrial Reform Trade Unions Leisure Time Work Discipline Media Travel Codification Stringent Admin Regularisation
PE Change 1900 – 1980’s Main Themes Time 1900 - 10 1910 1930 1950 1950 -70 ContentFacilitiesTeaching Methods Cultural values MilitaristicSchool room Whole class, Command Control Discipline Therapeutic Little skill School Hall/Yard Whole class Teacher Some group wk Health, discipline, some social Skill Phys develop Early mov’nt Gym Sport Field More pupil control Inc focus on personal develop Educational Recreation Movement Sp Hall Communit y Child centred Discovery. Learn through physical Individual Social good Militaristic Therapeutic Little skill Skill Phys develop Early mov’nt Educational Recreation Movement School room School Hall/Yard Gym Sport Field Sp Hall Communit y Whole class, Command Whole class Teacher Some group wk More pupil control Child centred Discovery. Learn through physical Control Discipline Health, discipline, some social Inc focus on personal develop Individual Social good Jan05Q3
Curriculum – Government Control 1900’s 1930’s 1950’s 1970’s 2000 Content & method govt directed & control Content – some govt control, method - teacher Govt advice on jun. content & method. Secondary – PE Colls Teacher control NC – Content govt. directed. Method OFSTED
What 1902 - Model Course: Militaristic, drill, imposed. 1909 PT – Swedish gymnasticsfor health & development. Games - an extra. Objections to both concepts – argument & debate 1900 – 1910 Drill v Gym How? Highly directed - tables of exercises, command style Little/no requirement for equipment NCO/Teacher in command Free standing – classroom, school yard
1900 – 1910 Drill v Gym Why? Boer War - fitness of recruits Dislike of militarism for children Concern for physical condition of the poor Influence of Swedish System and training of women teachers. Dullness of syllabus Contrast with provision for rich Facilities Jan02Q3 Ans
Characteristics and Objectives of DrillDrill Objectives Instil discipline and obedience Improve fitness for military activity Preparation for subservient life Characteristics State laid down tables of exercises Marching (pretend weapons) and free standing Regimented use of commands Former NCO’s Command style teaching regimented ranks
1910 – 1930 Gym to PT What 1919 Syllabus - Formal exercises, play, games, dance & rhythm. More formal for older children. Facilties for PT -Not compulsory How Less control from teachers More initiatives from teachers Discipline still paramount Holiday/school camps Jan05Q3 Ans
1910 – 1930 Gym to PT Why? Shock -1st W W+ fitness of recruits Improved position of women - replacing men, training Organised labour movements - anti-militaristic feeling Foreign influence - Montessori, Children - not little adults Increased pressure for games
1930 – 1960 PT to PE What? 1933 Syllabus - Two parts (11-/11+) More group work. Less whole class Recreative sport 1952 - (Primary) Moving & Growing, Planning the Programme Movement approach How? 1930s - Some free activity, imagination - motion stories Less teacher control Time recommendations - Elementary - each day Secondary - 3 x lesson 1950s No set lesson plans Schemes of work from teachers
PE – 1930s – 1960s PT - PE Why 2nd WW Reconstruction - better future for children 1944 Education Act - Compulsory provision Training of PE with other teachers - status Child centred learning Emphasis on skill learning Welfare state decline in medical, therapeutic aim Recreation-morale
1960’s - 1980’s PE to …….? What Junior Schools – decline in formal games Secondary schools - PE to Phys. Recreation Debate - width v depth. competition v co-operation Health concerns - HRF again! expansion of games, development of circuit tr. How Developing affluence – rebuilding, new facilities Selling of playing fields Movement based work Cooperative games Examinations Control moved to teachers, schools, advisors Still traditional approaches
1960- 1980’s PE to ….? Why? Divide between skill & expression PE to Physical Recreation Outdoor education Lack of a central directive - No consensus on syllabus Mood of personal freedom in 70’s Few specialist in primary schools
National Curriculum – Why? Developed between 1986-92 Games - athleticism - linked to the background of govt ministers? Control of the curriculum Worries over provision/cost No requirement on time Increasing specialisation & tech development Fears about international elite performances – ‘Raising the Game’ June03Q4 Ans