2This chapter… How sports developed from 18th & 19th centuries How the British way of playing fair & to the letter of the law – ethics of sport – came about
3Sport is an important aspect of life within society Thus reflects society – when cruel & riotous so was sport. When civilised so was sport. Sopciety also recognised and appreciate women within society – so did sport
4Sport like society has gone through several clear stages popular recreationpost - industrialisationIndustrialisationRational recreation
5Pre - industrialisation Pop Rec was a feature of life before industrialisation. It means ‘recreations for the populace’ Were all classes involved in the same forms of recreation? Upper classes – the aristocracy – played …….? Working classes – the peasants – played……..? When could the working classes play?UC – refined games with complex rules such as real tennis and fencingWC – mob games – farming year so dictated by seasons – recreation was provided by the chruches holy days and festivals – occasional happenings
7Characteristics of early games like mob football Local, often ruraldisorganised / unstructuredfew/simple rulesworking class involvedviolentparticipants NOT spectatorslimited equipment/facilitiesplayed on festivals/holidaysBased on force not skill
8IndustrialisationSociety began to change and so did sport! Leisure time was sparce. Why?Machine doing tasks that were done be peopleFactories employed thousands of people – lived in terrace houses little space – worked long 12 hr shifts for six days.
9Urbanisation affected sport Upper & middle classes unaffected by urbanisation & continued playing their sport WHY?Urbanisation affected sport
10Urbanisation affected sport No sporting rivalryNo spaceTraditional sports had to change to suit new environmentMachines dictated working hours – 6 day week (eventually reduced to 5 ½)Church on a Sunday- day of restPoorly paidLack of facilities
11What did middle-class factory owners & the church begin to do?
12What did middle-class factory owners & the church begin to do? Provided land & sports clubs/teamsSaw benefits of improving morale & loyaltyImproving healthMeans of social control
13Conditions gradually improved The improvementThe effect it had on sportFive & a half day weekWages increasedRailways developed & communications improvedCompetitions grew in size and so did spectator interest this lead to PROFESSIONALISM & INCREASED MEDIA INTEREST
14Sports were developed to suit this new environment Five & a half day weekSport could be played (only by a few because of space) so main involvement was to spectateWages increasedCould afford to watch & play sportRailways developed & communications improvedAssisted development of fixtures, competitions, leagues. Easier travel meant spectator sport blossomedThe middle classes controlled sport.Dictated leisure timeUsed women & children for cheap labour – disease was commonInitially no parks & street games were illegalPubs were the cultural centre of the working populationSports were developed to suit this new environment
15Exam questions1. Sports were rationalised in the 19th century English public schools.What is meant by the term rational recreation? (2 marks)2. Why were the majority of sports rationalised in the 19th century? (4 marks)
16Exam questions1. Sports were rationalised in the 19th century English public schools.What is meant by the term rational recreation? (2 marks)1. (Played) regularly/often;2. (Rules) – written/complex/sophisticated;3. (Behaviour) – etiquette/codes of behaviour/civilised/fair play/sportsmanship;4. (Highly Structured) – set times/number of players/boundaries;5. (Skill) – refined/complex/developed. 2 marks2. Why were the majority of sports rationalised in the 19th century? (4 marks)1. Society becoming more civilised/manners/less violent;2. Middle class were in control of society’s values/social control of workingclasses;3. Industrialisation – need for disciplined workforce;4. Era of social reform/philanthropists;5. Mass of population needed entertaining;6. Lack of space meant no room for old popular recreations;7. Administration needed as more clubs/national governing bodies.
17Emergence of rational recreation Traditional aspects of popular sport (gambling/drunkenness)became less of a force because of the moralising influence exerted by the middle classes via the developing traditions of public school educationWhat did middle class sport entail?Why did the middle classes take part in sport?FAIR PLAYStrict rules & regStrict amateur ethosPlayed for pleasure and as a form of charcaterbuilding
183 major contributions to the emergence of rational recreation:
19Codification Rules permit you to compete on equal terms Major influence came from the public schools where sports were promoted as a means of providing boys with disciplineThe boy then took these rules with them to university & the armed forces – where they established sports clubsThe leaders of these clubs lead to an agreed set of rules which led to the formation of NGB’s – what did this do?Development of regional & local organisations – competitions more teams - more matches
20Sport & PA was the British dominance in the world in terms of industrialisation British way of life went to Europe and further afieldEuropean & South American football & athletic clubs were soon developed for the British travelling abroad – however the locals began enjoying these new gamesIn far-flung corners of the world British dominance was evident – armed forces, British missionaries, engineers & administrators
21Exam questionHow did the 19th century public schools and universities influence the development of games and their spread into wider society? (4 marks)Why was participation in sport by the working class delayed compared with participation by the middle and upper classes in the 19th century? (3 marks)
222. No facilities of their own/little public provision; Development of gamesSpread into society1. Developed rules/boundaries/playingnumbers/facilities2. Competitions/House/inter-school3. Training/coaching4. Skills/tactics / strategies5. Leadership/captain6. Kit to define teams7. Ethics/morals/muscular/Christianity/athleticismMust relate to Universities or beyond to credit8. Acted as melting pots9. Codification10. More variety11. Higher standards12. Factory /church teams13. Provided facilities .employers/church14. Officers to troops15. British Empire . across theworld/diplomats/politicians16. Old Boys/ Old Girlsnetwork17. Clubs/governing bodies18. Teachers to schools1. Little leisure time/had to wait for leisure time e.g. Wednesday half day/little disposable income;2. No facilities of their own/little public provision;3. Traditional activities lost in urban areas (eg mob football)/legislation/banning;4. Lack of space for mass of population;5. No schooling until 1870/then only drill/no sport or recreation focus;6. Poor health of population/little energy;7. NGBs/administration was controlled by upper/middle classes.
24Public school influence on sport & the gentleman amateur QUICK QUIZWho were public schools for?What was the aim of the schools?What personal qualities were encourage in the schools?What is athleticism?After the public schools men went to university what did they do?Quick quiz –Class systems in place
25Who were public schools for? Fee-paying middle & upper classes QUICK QUIZWho were public schools for?Fee-paying middle & upper classesWhat was the aim of the schools?Produce further generations of men who would guide the government and industry of the UK and the developing empireWhat personal qualities were encourage in the schools?Leadership, loyalty, courage, discipline & commitmentWhat is athleticism?A fanatical devotion to sport that developed physical, social & moral aspects of young menAfter the public schools men went to university what did they do?Returned to school to teach or entered the clergyQuick quiz –Class systems in place
26Professional or amateur? What's the difference between the two?Individuals who played wanted to keep a class divide and they used sport as a means of social controlThe distinction between professional & amateur was enforced through strict rules about membershipROWING PICTURE!!!!!! - no membership for those who worked manual labourCricketAthleticsGentlemen amateur – a sportsmen who, because of his social position & financial situation, had no need for monetary reward from participating in sport
27picturesno membership for those who worked manual labourThe upper classes not only managed to play sports the way they wanted, but they also managed to keep the working classes out of their sport
28Football was different? After realising that the better players were unable to take time off work to play and that clubs had sufficient spectators to be able to pay players, the amateur football administrators had to accept professionalism in 1885 when the football league was established.Chruch Teams – Fulham, Aston Villa, Birmingham cityWorkplac Teams – Man Utd, West Ham Utd, ArsenalSchool Teams – Blackburn Rovers, Sunderland, Leicester City
29Differences between class was never more apparent in this period Upper & middle classes becoming more affluent whilst working classes become more impoverishedUntil late into the 20th century the following generalisations were made:Professional performers – working classesAgents/mangers/promoters (the businessmen) – middle classesSponsors/patrons – upper classesA pro performer in 19th century had limted wages but was still better than a normal wage for the workign classes
30The rise in media Income of the various agencies has increased Those sports where amateurs & professionals coexist – the professional tends to play at a higher standardIncreased status of professional sportspeople – role models/media personalitiesNow people aspire to emulate their sporting heroes – may be because of financial rewards but also for the social mobility that is much more possible today
31Exam questionsSport became more structured, organised and available in post-industrial Britain.The Figure identifies the characteristics associated with post-industrial Britain.Development in machine time state educationtransport and communicationurbanisation Post-industrial Britain Emergence of middle classCivilised lifestyle More law and order(i) Outline the impact of the following on the development of sport;development in transport and communicationsemergence of middle classes. (5 marks)
32Development in transport& communicationsMiddle ClassesRail allowed transport of teams andspectators/horses/spectator sportincrease;2. Competitions became regional andnational/leagues;3. Access to countryside / rambling /fishing/ climbing;4. Roads development in cycling clubs;5. Spread knowledge of sportingheroes/role models;6. Gave moral focus to sport/rational;7. eg abiding by rules/ etiquette;8. Banned popular recreations etcmob football;9. Organisers/ administers of sportclubs / competitions/NGB/amateur;10. Used sport as social control ofw/c/works teams/time/rights;11. Established their own sports fortheir own identity eg lawn tennis /cycling/more variety.