Presentation on theme: "THE EFFECTS OF TRANSPORT ON SPORT Reliable forms of mass transport also had an influence on the development of sport. Regular fixtures became possible."— Presentation transcript:
THE EFFECTS OF TRANSPORT ON SPORT Reliable forms of mass transport also had an influence on the development of sport. Regular fixtures became possible over greater distances. The growth of popular literature and greater literacy meant that information about events could be spread much more effectively Organisations such as the YMCA (founded in 1844) and later its sister organisation for young women, the YWCA (founded in 1859) played a crucial role in broadening access to sport
Branches in the larger cities provided gymnasium facilities for their members.They also had a range of recreational sections devoted to activities as diverse as rambling and football, cricket and photography.
The nature of sport, controlled by the new middle classes, became codified (standardised into rules). It also embodied the principles of fair play and Christian endeavour espoused in the countrys PUBLIC SCHOOLS. With the gaining of the Saturday half day and shorter working hours that resulted from the factories act of 1867 and the industrial relations act of 1871, it gradually became possible for ordinary working men to return to their former recreations. These sports were,of course, much changed by the new middle class guardians of morality.
THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHURCH In towns many recreations were either banned or severely curtailed through the zealousness of church men. They were seen to go against constraining social values of the church.Those that survived were either adapted or went underground. As a result, unruly and riotous behaviour was removed from view. Consequently the back room or cellar of the ale house became the place where people could spend their leisure time in the way they chose to.
Attitudes varied locally and people would wander from parish to parish to find less restrictions. Church wakes originally for commemorating the consecration of the church were stopped because hey had become more recreational than religious. Many of these festivals attracted less desirable social elements such as gambling, drinking, prostitution.
Bear baiting, Dog fighting, cock fighting and rat catching survived because they were more easily hidden from prying eyes. These types of sport did not just belong to the labouring classes. Local newspapers often reported on illegal cock fights with comments such as and among those arrested were captains, gentlemen and country magistrates. Public drunkenness was frown upon indeed penalised. Church attendance on Sundays was necessary in order to gain social acceptability. The new forms of sports had not yet arrived and recreation had become the preserve of those that had money, time and space.
CURTAILMENT & SUPPRESSION Research and discuss attempts made to curtail & suppress popular recreations Church/Puritans Crown War preparation
Summary of Sport after 1800 Movement from rural to urban Delay in the development of an infrastructure meant there was a certain amount of social disorder. Monday became a day to take off saint Monday many workers were paid by piece work Lou days. Steam power became more widespread workers had to do 60 hrs a week.
Towns grew, recreational space was lost Parks & gardens placed between slum areas (greenbelt) allowed middle class areas for pleasant walks. Ironically these were closed on Sundays – the only day labouring classes were free from work. Sport needed to adapt to a new urban society Long working hours 6-day weeks, little time or energy for sport The inn was the centre of recreation Middle and upper classes didnt want leisure to extend to the lower classes Traditional activities such as cricket & horse racing manages to adapt and modernise its sport fairly well.
People higher up the social ladder have more access, money, time.People higher up the social ladder have more access, money, time. Better attitudes towards sport and its benefits, health, character buildingBetter attitudes towards sport and its benefits, health, character building Used to certain sports through their schoolingUsed to certain sports through their schooling Unemployed loads of time no money etcUnemployed loads of time no money etc
Middle Upper Class Sports Hunting, Polo, Field Sports, Golf, Croquet Middle Class Sports Rugby Union, Racket sports, hockey Working Class Sports Rugby League, Darts, Fishing, Snooker Some sports cross all boundaries Football, cricket
Social Change The lower classes lost time & space Recreation now had to be seen as constructive & worthwhile in order to be acceptable. MASS TRANSPORT- The development of the railway and cheap fares meant that the lower classes could escape to the countryside & the seaside- much to the annoyance of the gentry.
Effects of transport on sport Regular fixtures became possible Information about events could be spread YMCA (1844) – YWCA(1859) Played a crucial role in broadening access to sport. They provided gymnasiums access to rambling, football & photography
Sports development Sports are developmental They come from: - CONQUEST e.g. Colonialisation OR - SOCIAL HIERARCHY e.g. gentry
WHAT IS DEVELOPING IN THE FOLLOWING 4 PICTURES?