2StandardStudents analyze the political, economic and social ramifications of World War I on the home front.
3WORLD WAR I BEGAN 1914 JUNE 28 ARCHDUKE FERDINAND ASSASSINATED JULY 28 AUSTRIA-HUNGARY DECLARED WAR ON SERBIAAUGUST 1 GERMANY DECLARED WAR ON RUSSIAAUGUST 3 GERMANY DECLARED WAR ON FRANCEAUGUST 4 GERMANY INVADED NEUTRAL BELGIUM WHICH PROMPTED BRITAIN TO DECLARE WAR THE SAME DAYAUGUST 4 PRESIDENT WILSON DECLARED POLICY OF NEUTRALITY FOR THE UNITED STATESAUGUST 6 AUSTRIA-HUNGARY DECLARED WAR ON RUSSIAAUGUST 23 JAPAN DECLARED WAR ON GERMANYOCTOBER 29 OTTOMAN EMPIRE JOINED THE WAR ON THE SIDE OF THE CENTRAL POWERS
4ALLIESFRANCEUNITED KINGDOM (AND ALL OF HER COLONIES)ITALY RUSSIAJAPAN ROMANIASERBIA GREECEPORTUGALTHE WAR BEGAN WITH THE ALLIES VERSUS THE CENTRAL POWERS AND SIX NEUTRAL NATIONSNEUTRAL NATIONSSPAIN SWITZERLAND NORWAY SWEDEN BELGIUM DENMARKCENTRAL POWERSAUSTRIA-HUNGARYGERMANYBULGARIATURKEY
5THE U.S. TRIED TO REMAIN NEUTRAL DEBATE OVER JOINING THE WARREASONS FOR JOINING THE WARLUSITANIAZIMMERMAN NOTEDECLARATION OF WARSlide 3
6WHAT GROUPS WANTED THE U. S WHAT GROUPS WANTED THE U.S. TO JOIN THE WAR ON THE SIDE OF THE CENTRAL POWERS AND WHY?VERY LARGE POPULATION OF GERMAN-AMERICANS LIVING IN THE U.S. DID NOT WANT TO FIGHT AGAINST GERMANYIRISH-AMERICANS DID NOT WANT TO HELP THE BRITISH BECAUSE OF THEIR HISTORICAL OPPRESSION OF THE IRISH AND BRITISH SUPPRESSION OF THE INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT IN IRELAND IN 1916
7U.S. POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUP FROM BOTH SIDES OF THE WAR: 32,243,282 TOTAL U.S. POPULATION 1910: 91,972,266U.S. POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUP FROM BOTH SIDES OF THE WAR: 32,243,282POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUP IN MILLIONS
8WHAT EXPLAINS THE ANTI-GERMAN SENTIMENT IN THE U. S WHAT EXPLAINS THE ANTI-GERMAN SENTIMENT IN THE U.S. GIVEN THAT GERMANS COMPRISED THE SINGLE LARGEST FOREIGN-BORN GROUP?CLASHING WITH THE GERMANS IN SAMOA AND AT MANILA BAY OVER EXPANSION OF U.S. TERRITORIES IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURYCOMPETITION OVER TRADING IN CHINA, EAST INDIES, THE PACIFIC, AND AFRICAGERMAN DOMINANCE OF NAVAL AND ARMY POWER OVER THE U.S.GERMANY INVADED NEUTRAL BELGIUMBRITISH PROPAGANDA DEMONIZING THE GERMANS
9I. Most people wanted to remain neutral because: A. they felt that it was not our fightB. Europe was too far awayC. war was expensiveD. divided loyalties since US traded with both Germany and Great Britain and did not want to sever ties with either side by fighting against them
10AD PLACED IN THE NEW YORK TIMES BY THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT, 1915 NOTICE! Travellers intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and that travellers sailing in the war zone on ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk. IMPERIAL GERMAN EMBASSY WASHINGTON, D.C., APRIL 22, 1915.
11LUSITANIA SUNK, 1915BRITISH PASSENGER SHIP SUNK BY A GERMAN U-BOAT IN MORE THAN 1,000 PEOPLE KILLED INCLUDING 128 AMERICANS.
12ALTHOUGH THIS EVENT ANGERED MANY AMERICANS, THE U. S ALTHOUGH THIS EVENT ANGERED MANY AMERICANS, THE U.S. DID NOT JOIN THE WAR FOR 2 MORE YEARS
13THE SUSSEX PLEDGEAFTER THE GERMANS SANK THE UNARMED FRENCH SUSSEX IN MARCH 1916 (THE AMERICANS ON BOARD WERE INJURED BUT NONE WERE KILLED), PRESIDENT WILSON DEMANDED THAT THE GERMANS STOP SINKING MERCHANT SHIPS WITHOUT WARNING OR THE U.S. WOULD SEVER DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH GERMANY.GERMANY AGREED AND THAT LASTED UNTIL JANUARY OF 1917 WHEN THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT, DUE TO CIVILIAN STARVATION FROM THE BRITISH BLOCKADE AND HOPING FOR A QUICK END TO THE WAR, ANNOUNCED UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE.
14FEBRUARY 1, 1917GERMANY ANNOUNCED THEY WOULD RESUME THEIR U-BOAT CAMPAIGN AND SINK ALL (INCLUDING AMERICAN) SHIPS IN THE WAR ZONE. MANY GERMANS WERE STARVING FROM THE BRITISH BLOCKADE AND THE GERMAN MILITARY BELIEVED THEY COULD FORCE THE BRITISH TO SURRENDER IN A FEW MONTHS, BEFORE THE U.S. WOULD ENTER, AND WIN THE WAR.WILSON CLUNG TO THE HOPE THAT GERMANY WOULD NOT ACTUALLY ATTACK U.S. SHIPS, HOWEVER IN MARCH FOUR UNARMED MERCHANT SHIPS WERE SUNK, WITH 36 LIVES LOST.
15Alfred Zimmermann, German Foreign Minister 1916 ZIMMERMANN NOTE (1917)On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America.If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlementYou are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan.Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months.Alfred Zimmermann, German Foreign Minister 1916
17WILSON ASKED CONGRESS TO DECLARE WAR APRIL 2, 1917 “THE WORLD MUST BE MADE SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY. ITS PEACE MUST BE PLANTED UPON THE TESTED FOUNDATIONS OF POLITICAL LIBERTY. WE HAVE NO SELFISH ENDS TO SERVE. WE DESIRE NO CONQUEST, NO DOMINION. WE SEEK NO INDEMNITIES FOR OURSELVES, NO MATERIAL COMPENSATION FOR THE SACRIFICES WE SHALL FREELY MAKE.”
18CONGRESS DECLARED WAR APRIL 6, 1917 EXCERPT FROM THE WAR DECLARATION “Whereas the Imperial German Government has committed repeated acts of war against the Government and the people of the United States of America; Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress Assembled, that the state of war between the United States and the Imperial German Government which has thus been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and that the President be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to carry on war against the Imperial German Government; and to bring the conflict to a successful termination all of the resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United States.”EXCERPT FROM THE WAR DECLARATION
19II. The US joins the war on the side of the Allies A. the US had more money invested in England than in GermanyB. France was a friend since the US war for independenceC. Wilson’s moral diplomacy policyD. British propagandaE. German unrestricted submarine warfare results in sinking of LusitaniaF. Zimmerman note
20THE UNITED STATES ENTERED THE WAR MOBILIZATIONAMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCESlide 3
21CAMP KEARNEY FREMONT, CA MAY 1, ARMY EXPANSION ACTFROM 200,000 TO 4,791,172 IN ARMED FORCES32 NEW CANTONMENTS AND CAMPS BUILT FOR 40,000 SOLDIERS EACH AT A COST OF $262M. (PANAMA CANAL COST $375M.)2,800,000 DRAFTED - SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT MAY 1942 DIVISIONS SENT TO FRANCE - 2,084,000 MENCAMP KEARNEY FREMONT, CA
22III. THE U.S. PREPARED FOR WAR - 1916 A. increase in the number of army and national guardsmen and build up of the navyB. Council of National Defense created to coordinate industry and defenseC. $50 million allocated to update merchant marine fleet
23SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT MAY 18, 1917 REQUIRED ALL MALES BETWEEN THE AGES OF (LATER CHANGED TO 18-45) TO REGISTER FOR THE DRAFTABOUT 24 MILLION MEN REGISTERED, 23% OF TOTAL POPULATIONABOUT 11,000 WOMEN VOLUNTEERED AS NURSES, CLERICAL WORKERS AND TELEPHONE OPERATORS
24SECRETARY OF WAR BAKER PULLED DRAFT NUMBERS IN THE LOTTERY
25DRAFTED MEN REPORTED FOR SERVICE IN SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS
26"ALL A SOLDIER NEEDS TO KNOW IS HOW TO SHOOT AND SALUTE." GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING, COMMANDER OF THE AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE IN WWI"ALL A SOLDIER NEEDS TO KNOW IS HOW TO SHOOT AND SALUTE."
29IV. Effects of the war on the home front A. Committee for Public Information – US gov’t “sells” the warpropaganda posters & war bondsB. climate of suspicion1. Espionage Act made it illegal give aid to the enemy2. Sedition Act made illegal any public expression of opposition to the war3. anti-German sentimentSlide 3
30LED BY JOURNALIST GEORGE CREEL COMMITTEE FOR PUBLIC INFORMATION: CREATED BY PRESIDENT WILSON TO SPREAD PRO-WAR PROPAGANDALED BY JOURNALIST GEORGE CREEL
31WAR PROPAGANDA POSTERS It encouraged businesses to spy on their employees, parents to spy on their children, and neighbors to spy on neighbors, and to report "disloyal," pro-German sentiments. In the most ridiculous moments of the campaign, Americans banned the teaching of German in schools, tore German folksongs like "Oh Tannenbaum" from children's songbooks, changed German street names, and renamed saurkraut "victory cabbage." On the more serious side, those regarded as pro-German were hounded from their jobs, pressured to change their German names, and in a few cases beaten or lynched.
36EXAMPLES OF ANTI-GERMAN SENTIMENT DURING WWI MANY AMERICAN SCHOOLS STOPPED OFFERING INSTRUCTION IN THE GERMAN LANGUAGE. CALIFORNIA'S STATE EDUCATION BOARD CALLED GERMAN A LANGUAGE OF "AUTOCRACY, BRUTALITY, AND HATRED”.SAUERKRAUT BECAME "LIBERTY CABBAGE"SALOONKEEPERS REMOVED PRETZELS FROM THE BARORCHESTRAL WORKS BY BACH, BEETHOVEN, AND BRAHMS VANISHED FROM MUSIC PROGRAMS, INCLUDING THAT OF THE NEW YORK PHILHARMONICMANY GERMAN AMERICANS WERE BADGERED, BEATEN, AND SOMETIMES KILLED.
37V. Civil liberties restricted during the war A. Civil liberties are fundamental individual rights that are protected in the Bill of Rights (freedom of speech & religion)B. in times of crisis they have been restricted by the gov’t in order to achieve larger goalsC. WWI – laws passed severely restricting people’s rights who spoke out against the war effortLED TO 6,000 ARRESTS AND OVER 1,900 PROSECUTIONS UNDER THE LAWS
38THE ESPIONAGE ACT OF 1917, LATER AMENDED AND CALLED THE SEDITION ACT OF 1918 SECTION 3. Whoever, when the United States is at war, shall willfully make or convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies and whoever when the United States is at war, shall willfully cause or attempt to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, refusal of duty, in the military or naval forces of the United States, or shall willfully obstruct the recruiting or enlistment service of the United States, to the injury of the service or of the United States, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both.RANDOLPH: FOUNDED A MAGAZINE CALLED THE MESSENGER THAT CAMPAIGNED FOR BLACK CIVIL RIGHTS, DURING WAR ARRESTED FOR TREASON BECAUSE OPPOSED BLACK ENLISTMENT IN THE ARMY; DEBS: SOCIALIST WHO RAN FOR PRES MORE THAN ONCE, ARRESTED FOR MAKING A SPEECH OPPOSING THE ESPIONAGE ACT, WHILE IN PRISON RECEIVED ALMOST 1 MILLION VOTES FOR PRESIDENT; EASTMAN: JOURNALIST WHOSE PUBLICATION THE MASSES FELT THE WAR WAS BASED ON CAPITALIST GREED AND WANTED TO STAY NEUTRAL, PUBLISHED ARTICLES AGAINST ENTERING THE WAR, 2 JURIES DID NOT CONVICT; REED: JOURNALIST WHO WENT TO RUSSIA TO COVER REVOLUTION, BECAME SYMPATHETIC, GOVERNMENT SHUT DOWN THE PUBLICATION, HE WAS CONVICTED AND MANAGED TO ESCAPE WITH A FAKE PASSPORT; BERGER: AGAINST THE WAR, FOUND GUILTY SENTENCED TO 20 YEARS, WHILE FREE ON APPEAL ELECTED TO CONGRESS; HAYWOOD: ARRESTED FOR OPPOSING THE WAR WITH HIS UNION IWW, SENTENCED TO 20 YEARS AND 30,000 WHILE FREE ON BAIL FLED TO RUSSIA. CHARLES SCHENCK: member of the Socialist Party, sentenced to 15 years for publishing pamphlets urging citizens to refuse to participate in the draft. He called the draft slavery, among other things. SUPREME COURT RULED AGAINST SCHENCK’S PROTEST THAT LAWS TOOK AWAY HIS FIRST AMENDMENT RIGHTS “CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER” TEST.SEDITION ACT: The law made it a crime to criticize by speech or writing the government or Constitution.ESPIONAGE ACT: Additional penalties were included for the refusal to perform military duty. Over the next few months around 900 went to prison under the Espionage Act.SOME OF THE PEOPLE ARRESTED UNDER THESE LAWS. PLEASE SEE THE SPEAKER NOTES FOR DETAILS.RANDOLPHDEBSEASTMANREEDBERGERHAYWOOD
39Papers are from an American citizen married to a German. The Presidential Proclamation of April 19, 1918 defined persons as "alien enemies" men and women (whether naturalized citizens or not) born in Germany, Austria or the Turkish Empire; and women (regardless of birthplace) married to alien enemies.Papers are from an American citizen married to a German.County of Residence: MiamiCity of Residence: PaolaGender: FemaleCountry of Origin: United StatesCity of Origin: KansasMaiden Name: Windler Date of Birth: 03/23/1873
40ROSE PASTOR STOKESSHE SENT A LETTER TO THE KANSAS CITY STAR THAT CLAIMED “NO GOVERNMENT WHICH IS FOR THE PROFITEERS CAN ALSO BE FOR THE PEOPLE, AND I AM FOR THE PEOPLE, WHILE THE GOVERNMENT IS FOR THE PROFITEERS.”SHE WAS ARRESTED AND SENTENCED TO TEN YEARS IN JAIL UNDER THESE LAWS.A HIGHER COURT LATER OVERTURNED THE CONVICTION.
41VI. How did the US government pay for the war? A. Income tax created in 1913Amendment XVIThe Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration.B Bonds: The gov’t borrowed money from the publicC. War savings stamps: cost between 25¢ and $5, when people filled a booklet they could be turned in for bonds
42THERE WERE FOUR MAJOR LIBERTY LOAN DRIVES WHICH AMASSED GREAT AMOUNTS OF MONEY FOR THE WAR EFFORT. PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS, LIKE THE RED CROSS AND THE Y.M.C.A. ALSO HELD FUND RAISING EVENTS.BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMANEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA
50VII. War Industries Board Gov’t took over all factories and ran them like one big factoryThe board instructed factories on what and how much to produce and the cost of the itemsWOMEN'S BLOUSE FACTORIES MADE SIGNAL FLAGSRADIATOR MANUFACTURERS MADE GUNSAUTOMOBILE FACTORIES MADE AIRPLANE ENGINESPIANO COMPANIES MADE AIRPLANE WINGS
53POSTERS DESIGNED TO CONVINCE WORKERS IT WAS THEIR DUTY TO PRODUCE (AND THEREFORE NOT STRIKE)
54VIII. National war labor board A. formed to unify labor and settle labor disputesB. hoped to prevent strikes that would stop production of war goodsC. also worked to improve working conditions1. 8 hour work day standards for employing women and children
55Food AdministrationDidn’t start rationing, relied upon voluntary participationSlogan: “FOOD WILL WIN THE WAR – DON’T WASTE IT”The US had to provide food for its own citizens a well as the allied countries
59FUEL ADMINISTRATIONHEADED BY HARRY A. GARFIELD, SON OF THE MURDERED PRESIDENTDESIGNED TO CONTROL AMERICA’S USE OF FUEL SINCE IT WAS NEEDED OVERSEASAS WITH THE FOOD ADMINISTRATION, AMERICANS WERE ASKED TO VOLUNTARILY CONSERVE THEIR USE OF FUEL LIGHTLESS NIGHTS AND GASLESS DAYS WERE OBSERVED DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME WAS OBSERVED FOR THE FIRST TIME IN U.S. HISTORY IN ORDER TO CUT BACK ON THE USE OF FUEL AND ELECTRICITY.
60IX. Americans in the WarA. African Americans served in segregated unitsB. Influenza outbreak, 19181. killed more Americans than died in the warC. Prohibition, Amendment 181. illegal to manufacture, sell, or transport alcohol in the US2. enforced by the Volstead Act
63AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS SERVED IN SEGREGATED UNITS HENRY JOHNSON, LEFT, AND NEADHAM ROBERTS, RIGHT RECEIVED THE FRENCH CROIX DE GUERRE, AN AWARD CREATED TO RECOGNIZE BRAVERY IN THE FACE OF AN ENEMY
64BUILDING RAILROADS IN FRANCE ALTHOUGH AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS WERE USED MOSTLY FOR LABOR, THE FRENCH HIRED SOME INFANTRY THAT FOUGHT ALONGSIDE FRENCH WHITE SOLDIERS. THESE EXPERIENCES CONTRIBUTED TO THE SENSE OF EMPOWERMENT EXPRESSED BY THE BLACK COMMUNITY IN THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE IN THE 1920s.CUTTING DOWN TREESBUILDING RAILROADS IN FRANCE
65EACH STAR REPRESENTED A SON FIGHTING IN THE WAR Ike Sims holds a sign with 11 stars, representing his 11 sons in service. During World War I, an indiscriminate amount of underprivileged citizens were called upon to serve their country in war. Many were African American and many families had multiple draftees.
66PARADES QUICKLY SPREAD THE DISEASE INFLUENZA, 1918SOLDIERS NEAR BOSTON SUDDENLY STARTED DYINGTHE CAUSE OF DEATH WAS IDENTIFIED AS INFLUENZA, BUT IT WAS UNLIKE ANY STRAIN EVER SEENAS THE KILLER VIRUS SPREAD ACROSS THE COUNTRY, HOSPITALS OVERFILLED, DEATH CARTS ROAMED THE STREETS AND HELPLESS CITY OFFICIALS DUG MASS GRAVESIT WAS THE WORST EPIDEMIC IN AMERICAN HISTORY, KILLING OVER 600,000, FIVE TIMES THE DEATHS OF AMERICAN SOLDIERS IN THE WAR. IT DISAPPEARED AS MYSTERIOUSLY AS IT HAD BEGUN.PARADES QUICKLY SPREAD THE DISEASE
67THE RED CROSS DELIVERED FOOD TO FLU VICTIMS IN CHARLOTTE, NORTH CAROLINA. THE MOTHER HAD JUST DIED FROM THE DISEASE.
68PROHIBITION Amendment XVIII DECEMBER 18, 1917 PASSED BY CONGRESS, RATIFIED BY THE STATES IN 1919, TOOK EFFECT IN 1920Amendment XVIIISection 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.Section 2. The Congress and the several states shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several states, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the states by the Congress.
69BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION 1917CZAR NICHOLAS II FORCED ABOUT 11 MILLION PEASANTS TO FIGHT EVEN THOUGH THEY SUFFERED HIGH INJURY AND DEATH RATESGROWING DISCONTENT WITH THE WAR, FOOD SHORTAGES, AND MASS DEMONSTRATIONS STARTED THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONCZAR NICHOLAS ABDICATED THE THRONELENIN HEADED THE BOLSHEVIK PARTY AND INTENDED TO TURN THE COUNTRY SOCIALISTONCE IN POWER, LENIN REMOVED THE RUSSIANS FROM THE WAR MARCH 1918
70THE FINAL MONTHS OF WWI: COORDINATED ALLIED ATTACKS
71AMERICANS ENTERED THE FIGHTING JUST IN TIME TO STOP A MASSIVE GERMAN OFFENSIVE IN 1918 BATTLE FOR ARGONNE
72“AT THE 11TH HOUR, OF THE 11TH MONTH, ON THE 11TH DAY” ARMISTICE SIGNED:“AT THE 11TH HOUR, OF THE 11TH MONTH, ON THE 11TH DAY”NOVEMBER 11, 1918 WWI ENDS
76THE FINANCIAL COSTS OF THE WAR Allied PowersCost in Dollars inUnited States22,625,253,000Great Britain35,334,012,000France24,265,583,000Russia22,293,950,000Italy12,413,998,000Belgium1,154,468,000Romania1,600,000,000Japan40,000,000Serbia399,400,000Greece270,000,000Canada1,665,576,000Australia1,423,208,000New Zealand378,750,000India601,279,000South Africa300,000,000British Colonies125,000,000Others500,000,000Total of all Costs125,690,477,000Central PowersCost in Dollars inGermany37,775,000,000Austria-Hungary20,622,960,000Turkey1,430,000,000Bulgaria815,200,000Total of all Costs60,643,160,000
77X. Paris Peace Conference A. Wilson’s Fourteen Points1. idealistic effort to solve problems that had caused the war2. League of Nations – international organization to prevent warB. Treaty of Versailles1. revenge on Germany for starting the wara. reparationsb. lost landc. armaments restrictedd. forced to admit war guilt
78PRESIDENT WILSON’S 14 POINTS AN END TO ALL SECRET DIPLOMACYFREEDOM OF THE SEAS IN PEACE AND WARREMOVAL OF TRADE BARRIERS AMONG NATIONSGENERAL REDUCTION OF ARMAMENTSTHE ADJUSTMENT OF COLONIAL CLAIMS IN THE INTEREST OF THE INHABITANTS AS WELL AS OF THE COLONIAL POWERTHE EVACUATION OF RUSSIAN TERRITORY AND THE INDEPENDENT DETERMINATION BY RUSSIA OF ITS OWN NATIONAL POLICIESTHE RESTORATION OF BELGIUMTHE EVACUATION OF ALL FRENCH TERRITORY AND RETURN OF ALSACE-LORRAINETHE READJUSTMENT OF ITALIAN BOUNDARIES AMONG CLEARLY RECOGNIZABLE LINES OF NATIONALITYINDEPENDENCE FOR VARIOUS NATIONAL GROUPS IN AUSTRIA-HUNGARYTHE RESTORATION OF THE BALKAN NATIONS AND FREE ACCESS TO THE SEA FOR SERBIAPROTECTION FOR MINORITIES IN TURKEY AND THE FREE PASSAGE OF ALL SHIPS THROUGH THE DARDANELLESINDEPENDENCE FOR POLAND, INCLUDING ACCESS TO THE SEAA GENERAL ASSOCIATION OF NATIONS TO PROTECT “MUTUAL GUARANTEES OF POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE AND TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY TO GREAT AND SMALL NATIONS ALIKE”
81PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE “BIG FOUR” BRITISH, ITALIAN, FRENCH AND AMERICANGEORGE ORLANDO CLEMENCEAU WILSONWANTED TO MAINTAIN TRADE RELATIONS WITH GERMANY BUT WANTED COLONIESWANTED TO PUNISH GERMANY AND PREVENT FUTURE INVASIONWANTED LAND PROMISED DURING WWIWANTED 14 POINTS AND FAIR PEACE FOR ALL
82TREATY OF VERSAILLES, EUROPE TREATY OF VERSAILLES: THE PEACE TREATY ENDING WW I CAUSED MORE PROBLEMS THAN IT SOLVED AND LAID THE BASIS FOR WW II. NEW COUNTRIES CREATED FROM TREATY: POLAND, LITHUANIA, LATVIA, ESTONIA AND FINLAND WERE FORMED FROM LAND LOST BY RUSSIA. CZECHOSLOVAKIA AND HUNGARY WERE FORMED OUT OF THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE.
83GERMAN ARMAMENT LIMITATIONS TREATY OF VERSAILLES,GERMAN ARMAMENT LIMITATIONSTYPEAMOUNT ALLOWEDPLANESWARSHIPS6SOLDIERS100,000CONSCRIPTIONBANNEDPRIOR TO WWI GERMANY HAD THE LARGEST LAND ARMY IN WESTERN EUROPE WITH OVER A MILLION SOLDIERS.
84GERMAN WAR GUILT CLAUSE The Allied and Associated Governments confirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their national have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.
85THE BLACK AREAS WERE CONTROLLED BY GERMANY PRIOR TO WWI, THE TREATY MADE THEM MANDATES OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS.ONLY FOUR COUNTRIES WERE INDEPENDENT: ETHIOPIA, LIBERIA, EGYPT, AND MOROCCO.ALL OTHER TERRITORY WAS DIVIDED BETWEEN BRITAIN, FRANCE, SPAIN, PORTUGAL, BELGIUM, AND ITALY
86SYRIA, JORDAN, SAUDI ARABIA AND IRAQ THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE WAS BROKEN APART AND SEVERAL NEW INDEPENDENT COUNTRIES EMERGED:SYRIA, JORDAN, SAUDI ARABIA AND IRAQ
88THE SENATE REFUSED TO RATIFY THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES WILSON NEGOTIATED THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES WITHOUT ANY INPUT FROM THE SENATE WHICH LED TO BITTERNESS. CABOT AND OTHERS ARGUED AGAINST JOINING AN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION THAT MIGHT HAVE VETO POWER OVER U.S. ACTIONS.SENATOR HENRY CABOT LODGE LED THE FIGHT AGAINST THE TREATYCARTOON SHOWS WILSON TRYING TO PROTECT THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS FROM THE SENATE.Cabot speech against joining League
89LEAGUE OF NATIONSSINCE THE U.S. DID NOT JOIN, THE LEAGUE BECAME INEFFECTIVE IN PREVENTING FUTURE WARS
90XI. Effects of WWI in America A. US became a world superpowerB. US refuses to join League of NationsC. US economy grew during the warD. US culture beginning to spread abroadE. birth of black empowerment movementF. women worked outside the home in huge numbersG. Russian Revolution sparks fears of communism at home
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