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Standard 11.4.5 Students analyze the political, economic and social ramifications of World War I on the home front.

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Presentation on theme: "Standard 11.4.5 Students analyze the political, economic and social ramifications of World War I on the home front."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Standard Students analyze the political, economic and social ramifications of World War I on the home front.

3 WORLD WAR I BEGAN 1914 JUNE 28 ARCHDUKE FERDINAND ASSASSINATED JULY 28 AUSTRIA-HUNGARY DECLARED WAR ON SERBIA AUGUST 1 GERMANY DECLARED WAR ON RUSSIA AUGUST 3 GERMANY DECLARED WAR ON FRANCE AUGUST 4 GERMANY INVADED NEUTRAL BELGIUM WHICH PROMPTED BRITAIN TO DECLARE WAR THE SAME DAY AUGUST 4 PRESIDENT WILSON DECLARED POLICY OF NEUTRALITY FOR THE UNITED STATES AUGUST 6 AUSTRIA-HUNGARY DECLARED WAR ON RUSSIA AUGUST 23 JAPAN DECLARED WAR ON GERMANY OCTOBER 29 OTTOMAN EMPIRE JOINED THE WAR ON THE SIDE OF THE CENTRAL POWERS

4 THE WAR BEGAN WITH THE ALLIES VERSUS THE CENTRAL POWERS AND SIX NEUTRAL NATIONS CENTRAL POWERS AUSTRIA-HUNGARY GERMANY BULGARIA TURKEY ALLIES FRANCE UNITED KINGDOM (AND ALL OF HER COLONIES) ITALY RUSSIA JAPAN ROMANIA SERBIA GREECE PORTUGAL NEUTRAL NATIONS SPAIN SWITZERLAND NORWAY SWEDEN BELGIUM DENMARK

5 DEBATE OVER JOINING THE WAR REASONS FOR JOINING THE WAR LUSITANIA ZIMMERMAN NOTE DECLARATION OF WAR Slide 3

6 WHAT GROUPS WANTED THE U.S. TO JOIN THE WAR ON THE SIDE OF THE CENTRAL POWERS AND WHY? VERY LARGE POPULATION OF GERMAN- AMERICANS LIVING IN THE U.S. DID NOT WANT TO FIGHT AGAINST GERMANY IRISH-AMERICANS DID NOT WANT TO HELP THE BRITISH BECAUSE OF THEIR HISTORICAL OPPRESSION OF THE IRISH AND BRITISH SUPPRESSION OF THE INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT IN IRELAND IN 1916

7 POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUP IN MILLIONS TOTAL U.S. POPULATION 1910: 91,972,266 U.S. POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUP FROM BOTH SIDES OF THE WAR: 32,243,282

8 WHAT EXPLAINS THE ANTI-GERMAN SENTIMENT IN THE U.S. GIVEN THAT GERMANS COMPRISED THE SINGLE LARGEST FOREIGN-BORN GROUP? CLASHING WITH THE GERMANS IN SAMOA AND AT MANILA BAY OVER EXPANSION OF U.S. TERRITORIES IN THE LATE 19 TH CENTURY COMPETITION OVER TRADING IN CHINA, EAST INDIES, THE PACIFIC, AND AFRICA GERMAN DOMINANCE OF NAVAL AND ARMY POWER OVER THE U.S. GERMANY INVADED NEUTRAL BELGIUM BRITISH PROPAGANDA DEMONIZING THE GERMANS

9 I. Most people wanted to remain neutral because: A. they felt that it was not our fight B. Europe was too far away C. war was expensive D. divided loyalties since US traded with both Germany and Great Britain and did not want to sever ties with either side by fighting against them

10 NOTICE! Travellers intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and that travellers sailing in the war zone on ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk. IMPERIAL GERMAN EMBASSY WASHINGTON, D.C., APRIL 22, AD PLACED IN THE NEW YORK TIMES BY THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT, 1915

11 LUSITANIA SUNK, 1915 BRITISH PASSENGER SHIP SUNK BY A GERMAN U-BOAT IN MORE THAN 1,000 PEOPLE KILLED INCLUDING 128 AMERICANS.

12 ALTHOUGH THIS EVENT ANGERED MANY AMERICANS, THE U.S. DID NOT JOIN THE WAR FOR 2 MORE YEARS

13 AFTER THE GERMANS SANK THE UNARMED FRENCH SUSSEX IN MARCH 1916 (THE AMERICANS ON BOARD WERE INJURED BUT NONE WERE KILLED), PRESIDENT WILSON DEMANDED THAT THE GERMANS STOP SINKING MERCHANT SHIPS WITHOUT WARNING OR THE U.S. WOULD SEVER DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH GERMANY. GERMANY AGREED AND THAT LASTED UNTIL JANUARY OF 1917 WHEN THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT, DUE TO CIVILIAN STARVATION FROM THE BRITISH BLOCKADE AND HOPING FOR A QUICK END TO THE WAR, ANNOUNCED UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE. THE SUSSEX PLEDGE

14 GERMANY ANNOUNCED THEY WOULD RESUME THEIR U-BOAT CAMPAIGN AND SINK ALL (INCLUDING AMERICAN) SHIPS IN THE WAR ZONE. MANY GERMANS WERE STARVING FROM THE BRITISH BLOCKADE AND THE GERMAN MILITARY BELIEVED THEY COULD FORCE THE BRITISH TO SURRENDER IN A FEW MONTHS, BEFORE THE U.S. WOULD ENTER, AND WIN THE WAR. WILSON CLUNG TO THE HOPE THAT GERMANY WOULD NOT ACTUALLY ATTACK U.S. SHIPS, HOWEVER IN MARCH FOUR UNARMED MERCHANT SHIPS WERE SUNK, WITH 36 LIVES LOST. FEBRUARY 1, 1917

15 ZIMMERMANN NOTE (1917) On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement.... You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Alfred Zimmermann, German Foreign Minister 1916

16 POLITICAL CARTOON ON THE ZIMMERMAN NOTE

17 WILSON ASKED CONGRESS TO DECLARE WAR APRIL 2, 1917 THE WORLD MUST BE MADE SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY. ITS PEACE MUST BE PLANTED UPON THE TESTED FOUNDATIONS OF POLITICAL LIBERTY. WE HAVE NO SELFISH ENDS TO SERVE. WE DESIRE NO CONQUEST, NO DOMINION. WE SEEK NO INDEMNITIES FOR OURSELVES, NO MATERIAL COMPENSATION FOR THE SACRIFICES WE SHALL FREELY MAKE.

18 CONGRESS DECLARED WAR APRIL 6, 1917 Whereas the Imperial German Government has committed repeated acts of war against the Government and the people of the United States of America; Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress Assembled, that the state of war between the United States and the Imperial German Government which has thus been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and that the President be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to carry on war against the Imperial German Government; and to bring the conflict to a successful termination all of the resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United States. EXCERPT FROM THE WAR DECLARATION

19 II. The US joins the war on the side of the Allies A. the US had more money invested in England than in Germany B. France was a friend since the US war for independence C. Wilsons moral diplomacy policy D. British propaganda E. German unrestricted submarine warfare results in sinking of Lusitania F. Zimmerman note

20 MOBILIZATION AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE Slide 3

21 FROM 200,000 TO 4,791,172 IN ARMED FORCES 32 NEW CANTONMENTS AND CAMPS BUILT FOR 40,000 SOLDIERS EACH AT A COST OF $262M. (PANAMA CANAL COST $375M.) 2,800,000 DRAFTED - SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT MAY DIVISIONS SENT TO FRANCE - 2,084,000 MEN CAMP KEARNEY FREMONT, CA MAY 1, ARMY EXPANSION ACT

22 III. THE U.S. PREPARED FOR WAR A. increase in the number of army and national guardsmen and build up of the navy B. Council of National Defense created to coordinate industry and defense C. $50 million allocated to update merchant marine fleet

23 REQUIRED ALL MALES BETWEEN THE AGES OF (LATER CHANGED TO 18-45) TO REGISTER FOR THE DRAFT ABOUT 24 MILLION MEN REGISTERED, 23% OF TOTAL POPULATION ABOUT 11,000 WOMEN VOLUNTEERED AS NURSES, CLERICAL WORKERS AND TELEPHONE OPERATORS SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT MAY 18, 1917

24 SECRETARY OF WAR BAKER PULLED DRAFT NUMBERS IN THE LOTTERY

25 DRAFTED MEN REPORTED FOR SERVICE IN SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS

26 GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING, COMMANDER OF THE AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE IN WWI "ALL A SOLDIER NEEDS TO KNOW IS HOW TO SHOOT AND SALUTE."

27 SOLDIERS LEFT FOR FRANCE

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29 A. Committee for Public Information – US govt sells the war 1.propaganda posters & war bonds B. climate of suspicion 1. Espionage Act made it illegal give aid to the enemy 2. Sedition Act made illegal any public expression of opposition to the war 3. anti-German sentiment Slide 3 IV. Effects of the war on the home front

30 COMMITTEE FOR PUBLIC INFORMATION : CREATED BY PRESIDENT WILSON TO SPREAD PRO-WAR PROPAGANDA LED BY JOURNALIST GEORGE CREEL

31 WAR PROPAGANDA POSTERS

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36 EXAMPLES OF ANTI-GERMAN SENTIMENT DURING WWI MANY AMERICAN SCHOOLS STOPPED OFFERING INSTRUCTION IN THE GERMAN LANGUAGE. CALIFORNIA'S STATE EDUCATION BOARD CALLED GERMAN A LANGUAGE OF "AUTOCRACY, BRUTALITY, AND HATRED. SAUERKRAUT BECAME "LIBERTY CABBAGE" SALOONKEEPERS REMOVED PRETZELS FROM THE BAR ORCHESTRAL WORKS BY BACH, BEETHOVEN, AND BRAHMS VANISHED FROM MUSIC PROGRAMS, INCLUDING THAT OF THE NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC MANY GERMAN AMERICANS WERE BADGERED, BEATEN, AND SOMETIMES KILLED.

37 A. Civil liberties are fundamental individual rights that are protected in the Bill of Rights (freedom of speech & religion) B. in times of crisis they have been restricted by the govt in order to achieve larger goals C. WWI – laws passed severely restricting peoples rights who spoke out against the war effort V. Civil liberties restricted during the war LED TO 6,000 ARRESTS AND OVER 1,900 PROSECUTIONS UNDER THE LAWS

38 THE ESPIONAGE ACT OF 1917, LATER AMENDED AND CALLED THE SEDITION ACT OF 1918 SECTION 3. Whoever, when the United States is at war, shall willfully make or convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies and whoever when the United States is at war, shall willfully cause or attempt to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, refusal of duty, in the military or naval forces of the United States, or shall willfully obstruct the recruiting or enlistment service of the United States, to the injury of the service or of the United States, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both. HAYWOODDEBSRANDOLPHEASTMANBERGERREED SOME OF THE PEOPLE ARRESTED UNDER THESE LAWS. PLEASE SEE THE SPEAKER NOTES FOR DETAILS.

39 The Presidential Proclamation of April 19, 1918 defined persons as "alien enemies" men and women (whether naturalized citizens or not) born in Germany, Austria or the Turkish Empire; and women (regardless of birthplace) married to alien enemies. Papers are from an American citizen married to a German. County of Residence: Miami City of Residence: Paola Gender: Female Country of Origin: United States City of Origin: Kansas Maiden Name: Windler Date of Birth: 03/23/1873

40 ROSE PASTOR STOKES SHE SENT A LETTER TO THE KANSAS CITY STAR THAT CLAIMED NO GOVERNMENT WHICH IS FOR THE PROFITEERS CAN ALSO BE FOR THE PEOPLE, AND I AM FOR THE PEOPLE, WHILE THE GOVERNMENT IS FOR THE PROFITEERS. SHE WAS ARRESTED AND SENTENCED TO TEN YEARS IN JAIL UNDER THESE LAWS. A HIGHER COURT LATER OVERTURNED THE CONVICTION.

41 A. Income tax created in 1913 Amendment XVI The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration. B Bonds: The govt borrowed money from the public C. War savings stamps: cost between 25¢ and $5, when people filled a booklet they could be turned in for bonds VI. How did the US government pay for the war?

42 THERE WERE FOUR MAJOR LIBERTY LOAN DRIVES WHICH AMASSED GREAT AMOUNTS OF MONEY FOR THE WAR EFFORT. PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS, LIKE THE RED CROSS AND THE Y.M.C.A. ALSO HELD FUND RAISING EVENTS. NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA

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44 THE LIBERTY LOAN DRIVES USUALLY INVOLVED A LARGE PARADE THAT WOULD INCLUDE SOLDIERS AND COMMUNITY MEMBERS

45 CELEBRITIES MOTIVATED PEOPLE TO GET INVOLVED IN THE LOAN DRIVES THE HUMAN SQUIRREL FATTIE ARBUCKLE

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48 KIDS WERE ENCOURAGED TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE LOAN DRIVES AS WELL

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50 VII. War Industries Board A.Govt took over all factories and ran them like one big factory B.The board instructed factories on what and how much to produce and the cost of the items WOMEN'S BLOUSE FACTORIES MADE SIGNAL FLAGS RADIATOR MANUFACTURERS MADE GUNS AUTOMOBILE FACTORIES MADE AIRPLANE ENGINES PIANO COMPANIES MADE AIRPLANE WINGS

51 MANUFACTURING HELMETS AND HATS FOR SOLDIERS

52 WOOL SOCKS FOR SOLDIERS

53 POSTERS DESIGNED TO CONVINCE WORKERS IT WAS THEIR DUTY TO PRODUCE (AND THEREFORE NOT STRIKE)

54 VIII. National war labor board A. formed to unify labor and settle labor disputes B. hoped to prevent strikes that would stop production of war goods C. also worked to improve working conditions 1. 8 hour work day 2. standards for employing women and children

55 Food Administration Didnt start rationing, relied upon voluntary participation Slogan: FOOD WILL WIN THE WAR – DONT WASTE IT The US had to provide food for its own citizens a well as the allied countries

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59 FUEL ADMINISTRATION HEADED BY HARRY A. GARFIELD, SON OF THE MURDERED PRESIDENT DESIGNED TO CONTROL AMERICAS USE OF FUEL SINCE IT WAS NEEDED OVERSEAS AS WITH THE FOOD ADMINISTRATION, AMERICANS WERE ASKED TO VOLUNTARILY CONSERVE THEIR USE OF FUEL LIGHTLESS NIGHTS AND GASLESS DAYS WERE OBSERVED DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME WAS OBSERVED FOR THE FIRST TIME IN U.S. HISTORY IN ORDER TO CUT BACK ON THE USE OF FUEL AND ELECTRICITY.

60 IX. Americans in the War A. African Americans served in segregated units B. Influenza outbreak, killed more Americans than died in the war C. Prohibition, Amendment illegal to manufacture, sell, or transport alcohol in the US 2. enforced by the Volstead Act

61 WOMEN TOOK THE JOBS LEFT BEHIND BY THE MEN

62 NURSES CONTRIBUTED TO THE WAR EFFORT

63 AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS SERVED IN SEGREGATED UNITS HENRY JOHNSON, LEFT, AND NEADHAM ROBERTS, RIGHT RECEIVED THE FRENCH CROIX DE GUERRE, AN AWARD CREATED TO RECOGNIZE BRAVERY IN THE FACE OF AN ENEMY

64 ALTHOUGH AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS WERE USED MOSTLY FOR LABOR, THE FRENCH HIRED SOME INFANTRY THAT FOUGHT ALONGSIDE FRENCH WHITE SOLDIERS. THESE EXPERIENCES CONTRIBUTED TO THE SENSE OF EMPOWERMENT EXPRESSED BY THE BLACK COMMUNITY IN THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE IN THE 1920s. BUILDING RAILROADS IN FRANCE CUTTING DOWN TREES

65 EACH STAR REPRESENTED A SON FIGHTING IN THE WAR

66 INFLUENZA, 1918 SOLDIERS NEAR BOSTON SUDDENLY STARTED DYING THE CAUSE OF DEATH WAS IDENTIFIED AS INFLUENZA, BUT IT WAS UNLIKE ANY STRAIN EVER SEEN AS THE KILLER VIRUS SPREAD ACROSS THE COUNTRY, HOSPITALS OVERFILLED, DEATH CARTS ROAMED THE STREETS AND HELPLESS CITY OFFICIALS DUG MASS GRAVES IT WAS THE WORST EPIDEMIC IN AMERICAN HISTORY, KILLING OVER 600,000, FIVE TIMES THE DEATHS OF AMERICAN SOLDIERS IN THE WAR. IT DISAPPEARED AS MYSTERIOUSLY AS IT HAD BEGUN. PARADES QUICKLY SPREAD THE DISEASE

67 THE RED CROSS DELIVERED FOOD TO FLU VICTIMS IN CHARLOTTE, NORTH CAROLINA. THE MOTHER HAD JUST DIED FROM THE DISEASE.

68 Amendment XVIII Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. Section 2. The Congress and the several states shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several states, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the states by the Congress. PROHIBITION DECEMBER 18, 1917 PASSED BY CONGRESS, RATIFIED BY THE STATES IN 1919, TOOK EFFECT IN 1920

69 BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION 1917 CZAR NICHOLAS II FORCED ABOUT 11 MILLION PEASANTS TO FIGHT EVEN THOUGH THEY SUFFERED HIGH INJURY AND DEATH RATES GROWING DISCONTENT WITH THE WAR, FOOD SHORTAGES, AND MASS DEMONSTRATIONS STARTED THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION CZAR NICHOLAS ABDICATED THE THRONE LENIN HEADED THE BOLSHEVIK PARTY AND INTENDED TO TURN THE COUNTRY SOCIALIST ONCE IN POWER, LENIN REMOVED THE RUSSIANS FROM THE WAR MARCH 1918

70 THE FINAL MONTHS OF WWI: COORDINATED ALLIED ATTACKS

71 AMERICANS ENTERED THE FIGHTING JUST IN TIME TO STOP A MASSIVE GERMAN OFFENSIVE IN 1918 BATTLE FOR ARGONNE

72 ARMISTICE SIGNED: AT THE 11 TH HOUR, OF THE 11 TH MONTH, ON THE 11 TH DAY NOVEMBER 11, 1918 WWI ENDS

73 THE UNITED STATES CELEBRATED

74 Country Dead Wounded POW/MIA Total Mobilized Austria-Hungary 1,200,000 3,620,000 2,200,000 7,020,000 7,800,000 Belgium 13,716 44,686 34,659 93, ,000 British Empire 908,371 2,090, ,652 3,190,235 8,904,467 Bulgaria 87, ,390 27, ,919 1,200,000 France 1,357,800 4,266, ,000 6,160,800 8,410,000 Germany 1,773,700 4,216,058 1,152,800 7,142,558 11,000,000 Greece 5,000 21,000 1,000 27, ,000 Italy 650, , ,000 2,197,000 5,615,000 Japan , ,000 Montenegro 3,000 10,000 7,000 20,000 50,000 Portugal 7,222 13,751 12,318 33, ,000 Romania 335, ,000 80, , ,000 Russia 1,700,000 4,950,000 2,500,000 9,150,000 12,000,000 Serbia 45, , , , ,343 Turkey 325, , , ,000 2,850,000 US 116, , ,518 4,734,991 TOTALS 8,528,831 21,189,154 7,746,419 37,464,404 65,418,801

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76 Allied PowersCost in Dollars in United States22,625,253,000 Great Britain35,334,012,000 France24,265,583,000 Russia22,293,950,000 Italy12,413,998,000 Belgium1,154,468,000 Romania1,600,000,000 Japan40,000,000 Serbia399,400,000 Greece270,000,000 Canada1,665,576,000 Australia1,423,208,000 New Zealand378,750,000 India601,279,000 South Africa300,000,000 British Colonies125,000,000 Others500,000,000 Total of all Costs125,690,477,000 Central Powers Cost in Dollars in Germany37,775,000,000 Austria- Hungary 20,622,960,000 Turkey1,430,000,000 Bulgaria815,200,000 Total of all Costs 60,643,160,000 THE FINANCIAL COSTS OF THE WAR

77 X. Paris Peace Conference A. Wilsons Fourteen Points 1. idealistic effort to solve problems that had caused the war 2. League of Nations – international organization to prevent war B. Treaty of Versailles 1. revenge on Germany for starting the war a. reparations b. lost land c. armaments restricted d. forced to admit war guilt

78 PRESIDENT WILSONS 14 POINTS 1.AN END TO ALL SECRET DIPLOMACY 2.FREEDOM OF THE SEAS IN PEACE AND WAR 3.REMOVAL OF TRADE BARRIERS AMONG NATIONS 4.GENERAL REDUCTION OF ARMAMENTS 5.THE ADJUSTMENT OF COLONIAL CLAIMS IN THE INTEREST OF THE INHABITANTS AS WELL AS OF THE COLONIAL POWER 6.THE EVACUATION OF RUSSIAN TERRITORY AND THE INDEPENDENT DETERMINATION BY RUSSIA OF ITS OWN NATIONAL POLICIES 7.THE RESTORATION OF BELGIUM 8.THE EVACUATION OF ALL FRENCH TERRITORY AND RETURN OF ALSACE- LORRAINE 9.THE READJUSTMENT OF ITALIAN BOUNDARIES AMONG CLEARLY RECOGNIZABLE LINES OF NATIONALITY 10.INDEPENDENCE FOR VARIOUS NATIONAL GROUPS IN AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 11.THE RESTORATION OF THE BALKAN NATIONS AND FREE ACCESS TO THE SEA FOR SERBIA 12.PROTECTION FOR MINORITIES IN TURKEY AND THE FREE PASSAGE OF ALL SHIPS THROUGH THE DARDANELLES 13.INDEPENDENCE FOR POLAND, INCLUDING ACCESS TO THE SEA 14.A GENERAL ASSOCIATION OF NATIONS TO PROTECT MUTUAL GUARANTEES OF POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE AND TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY TO GREAT AND SMALL NATIONS ALIKE

79 SOME BELIEVED THE LEAGUE WAS NECESSARY

80 OTHERS BELIEVED THE LEAGUE WOULD NOT WORK

81 PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE BIG FOUR GEORGE ORLANDO CLEMENCEAU WILSON WANTED TO MAINTAIN TRADE RELATIONS WITH GERMANY BUT WANTED COLONIES WANTED LAND PROMISED DURING WWI WANTED TO PUNISH GERMANY AND PREVENT FUTURE INVASION WANTED 14 POINTS AND FAIR PEACE FOR ALL

82 TREATY OF VERSAILLES, EUROPE

83 TREATY OF VERSAILLES, GERMAN ARMAMENT LIMITATIONS TYPEAMOUNT ALLOWED PLANES0 WARSHIPS6 SOLDIERS100,000 CONSCRIPTIONBANNED

84 GERMAN WAR GUILT CLAUSE The Allied and Associated Governments confirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their national have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.

85 THE BLACK AREAS WERE CONTROLLED BY GERMANY PRIOR TO WWI, THE TREATY MADE THEM MANDATES OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. ONLY FOUR COUNTRIES WERE INDEPENDENT: ETHIOPIA, LIBERIA, EGYPT, AND MOROCCO. ALL OTHER TERRITORY WAS DIVIDED BETWEEN BRITAIN, FRANCE, SPAIN, PORTUGAL, BELGIUM, AND ITALY

86 THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE WAS BROKEN APART AND SEVERAL NEW INDEPENDENT COUNTRIES EMERGED: SYRIA, JORDAN, SAUDI ARABIA AND IRAQ

87 TREATY OF VERSAILLES SIGNED JUNE 28, 1919

88 THE SENATE REFUSED TO RATIFY THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES SENATOR HENRY CABOT LODGE LED THE FIGHT AGAINST THE TREATY WILSON NEGOTIATED THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES WITHOUT ANY INPUT FROM THE SENATE WHICH LED TO BITTERNESS. CABOT AND OTHERS ARGUED AGAINST JOINING AN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION THAT MIGHT HAVE VETO POWER OVER U.S. ACTIONS. CARTOON SHOWS WILSON TRYING TO PROTECT THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS FROM THE SENATE. Cabot speech against joining League

89 LEAGUE OF NATIONS SINCE THE U.S. DID NOT JOIN, THE LEAGUE BECAME INEFFECTIVE IN PREVENTING FUTURE WARS

90 XI. Effects of WWI in America A. US became a world superpower B. US refuses to join League of Nations C. US economy grew during the war D. US culture beginning to spread abroad E. birth of black empowerment movement F. women worked outside the home in huge numbers G. Russian Revolution sparks fears of communism at home

91 Other titles available in the United States history series: Colonization to Reconstruction: Early U.S. Review Slavery Causes of the Civil War Civil War Reconstruction Westward Movement Immigration and Urbanization America becomes a world power: Imperialism The Progressive Era The U.S. and World War One 1920s Great Depression and New Deal: 1930s Causes of World War Two World War Two 1950s Civil Rights Movement Cold War: Truman to Kennedy Cold War: Johnson to the fall of the Berlin Wall Vietnam Late History Overview: 1970s, 1980s, 1990s World History titles: The Conquest of Mexico New Titles for Fall 2005: Colonial Era Revolutionary Era Please visit our website as we continually publish new titles: HMS Historical Media, a division of Multimedia Learning, LLC, has 26 classroom ready historical simulation games available on various topics. Please visit our website for more details:


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