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NATIONAL DEFENSE ACT INCREASED THE NUMBER OF ARMY AND NATIONAL GUARDSMEN AUGUST $313 MILLION CHANNELED INTO BUILDING UP THE NAVY COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE.

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Presentation on theme: "NATIONAL DEFENSE ACT INCREASED THE NUMBER OF ARMY AND NATIONAL GUARDSMEN AUGUST $313 MILLION CHANNELED INTO BUILDING UP THE NAVY COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE."— Presentation transcript:

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2 NATIONAL DEFENSE ACT INCREASED THE NUMBER OF ARMY AND NATIONAL GUARDSMEN AUGUST $313 MILLION CHANNELED INTO BUILDING UP THE NAVY COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE CREATED TO COORDINATE INDUSTRY AND DEFENSE SHIPPING BOARD GIVEN $50 MILLION TO UPDATE MERCHANT MARINE FLEET THE U.S. PREPARED FOR WAR 1916

3 THE ELECTION OF 1916 WILSON RAN ON THE SLOGAN “HE KEPT US OUT OF WAR!” HOWEVER HE KNEW THAT THE U.S. WAS GETTING CLOSER TO ENTERING THE WAR DEMOCRAT PRESIDENT WOODROW WILSON REPUBLICAN SUPREME COURT JUSTICE CHARLES EVANS HUGHES HUGHES CHALLENGED WILSON’S UNWILLINGNESS TO STAND UP TO THE GERMANS

4 GERMANY ANNOUNCED THEY WOULD RESUME THEIR U-BOAT CAMPAIGN AND SINK ALL (INCLUDING AMERICAN) SHIPS IN THE WAR ZONE. MANY GERMANS WERE STARVING FROM THE BRITISH BLOCKADE AND THE GERMAN MILITARY BELIEVED THEY COULD FORCE THE BRITISH TO SURRENDER IN A FEW MONTHS, BEFORE THE U.S. WOULD ENTER, AND WIN THE WAR. WILSON CLUNG TO THE HOPE THAT GERMANY WOULD NOT ACTUALLY ATTACK U.S. SHIPS, HOWEVER IN MARCH FOUR UNARMED MERCHANT SHIPS WERE SUNK, WITH 36 LIVES LOST. FEBRUARY 1, 1917

5 ZIMMERMANN NOTE (1917) On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement.... You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Alfred Zimmermann, German Foreign Minister 1916

6 WILSON ASKED CONGRESS TO DECLARE WAR APRIL 2, 1917 “THE WORLD MUST BE MADE SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY. ITS PEACE MUST BE PLANTED UPON THE TESTED FOUNDATIONS OF POLITICAL LIBERTY. WE HAVE NO SELFISH ENDS TO SERVE. WE DESIRE NO CONQUEST, NO DOMINION. WE SEEK NO INDEMNITIES FOR OURSELVES, NO MATERIAL COMPENSATION FOR THE SACRIFICES WE SHALL FREELY MAKE.”

7 CONGRESS DECLARED WAR APRIL 6, 1917 “Whereas the Imperial German Government has committed repeated acts of war against the Government and the people of the United States of America; Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress Assembled, that the state of war between the United States and the Imperial German Government which has thus been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and that the President be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to carry on war against the Imperial German Government; and to bring the conflict to a successful termination all of the resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United States.” EXCERPT FROM THE WAR DECLARATION

8 FROM 200,000 TO 4,791,172 IN ARMED FORCES 32 NEW CANTONMENTS AND CAMPS BUILT FOR 40,000 SOLDIERS EACH AT A COST OF $262M. (PANAMA CANAL COST $375M.) 2,800,000 DRAFTED - SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT MAY DIVISIONS SENT TO FRANCE - 2,084,000 MEN CAMP KEARNEY FREMONT, CA MAY 1, ARMY EXPANSION ACT

9 REQUIRED ALL MALES BETWEEN THE AGES OF (LATER CHANGED TO 18-45) TO REGISTER FOR THE DRAFT ABOUT 24 MILLION MEN REGISTERED, 23% OF TOTAL POPULATION ABOUT 11,000 WOMEN VOLUNTEERED AS NURSES, CLERICAL WORKERS AND TELEPHONE OPERATORS SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT MAY 18, 1917

10 GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING, COMMANDER OF THE AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE IN WWI "ALL A SOLDIER NEEDS TO KNOW IS HOW TO SHOOT AND SALUTE."


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