Presentation on theme: "Outcome: Events Prior to U.S. Entry"— Presentation transcript:
1Outcome: Events Prior to U.S. Entry World War IOutcome: Events Prior to U.S. Entry
2Events Prior to U.s. entry U.S. Position: NeutralityPresident Wilson encouraged neutrality in “thought & action”Neutrality ProblemsU.S. traded w/both sides, but ties w/Great Britain were strongestCommon language, customs, and governmentBy 1917, U.S. loans to the Allies reached $2.3 billion
3Events Prior to U.s. entry Great Britain spread anti-German propaganda to the U.S.G. Britain blockaded Europe, stopping our trade w/Germany (famine)Germany began submarine warfare (violated “freedom of seas”)Attacked ships in Allied portsDeclared a “war zone” around the British Isles
7Events Prior to U.s. entry Sinking of the Lusitania (May 7, 1915)U.S.-German relations worsenGermany questioned U.S. neutrality & the ship’s cargoShip was loaded with contraband purchased from the U.S.Wilson demanded in a letter of protest that Germany end sub warfare, & apologize and pay reparations to the families
9Events Prior to U.s. entry March 1916: The French ship Sussex was sunk w/Americans on board. Germany agreed to the “Sussex Pledge,” a promise to warn ships before sinking them.
10Events Prior to U.s. entry Election of 1916(D) Wilson: “Dove” and (R) Charles E. Hughes: “Hawk”Both hand campaigned for peace & neutralityTR may have hurt (R) chances for victory with pro-war speechesCliff-hanger: Wilson won by 20 electoral votes (CA decided the outcome)Message: Did the citizens of the US want to go to war despite Wilson??
11Events Prior to U.s. entry Events to US EntryBy 1916, the War in Europe became stalemated on both frontsWestern Front = 500 miles of trenches extending from the English Channel to the Adriatic Sea (Defended by France and Great Britain)Eastern Front = line defended by RussiaLittle progress & high casualties led to frustration on both sides
15Events Prior to U.s. entry Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare to break the deadlockStopped issuing warnings; 3 U.S. ships were sunk in one dayThe Kaiser felt confident the U.S. would not enter the warU.S. responded by ending diplomatic relations w/Germany
16Events Prior to U.s. entry Zimmerman Note (“Last Straw”) published on March 1, 1917)Letter from Germany to Mexico asking for an alliance against the U.S.Intercepted and decoded by Great BritainPro-war fever intensified in the U.S.; TR demanded we enter in the name of self-defense. Soon after, 4 more unarmed U.S. ships were sunk.March 1917, Russia surrendered to Germany
17Events Prior to U.s. entry Wilson asked Congress for a Declaration of War on April 2, 1917Enemy: German government, not the German peopleWilson: “America must go to war to make the world safe for democracy”Congress declared war on April 6, 1917
18Events Prior to U.s. entry The War in EuropeThe Allies were weakened in 1917In March, 1917 a Russian peoples’ revolt overthrew Czar Nicholas II and a provisional government was set upIn November 1917, this weak gov’t was overthrown by the Bolsheviks led by Nikolai Lenin, eventually resulting in a communist governmentIn December, 1917 Russia agreed to an armistice on the Eastern Front and withdrew, leaving Germany to fight a 1 front war (All German forces could now be sent to the Western Front in concentration)
19Events Prior to U.s. entry June, 1917: 1st U.S. troops arrive in EuropeA.E.F. = American Expeditionary Forces were led by General John PershingBy 1918, 2 million U.S. “Doughboys” were in FranceWilson began plans for permanent peace based on his 14 Points