Presentation on theme: "A Review of the Tenses. The Present Tenses Simple Continuous Perfect."— Presentation transcript:
A Review of the Tenses
The Present Tenses Simple Continuous Perfect
The Present Simple - Function The Present Simple is used : 1. For permanent situations She works in an office 2. For repeated actions in the present He often goes to the cinema (especially with adverbs of frequency) 3. For facts which are permanently true The sun sets in the west 4. For timetables and programmes The lesson starts at 9 oclock
Present simple - Structure The Present simple takes an infinitive verb and we add s or es in the 3 rd person. I like – he likes, they watch – she watches To form the negative we add do not and in the 3 rd person does not I do not like – he does not like. We usually use a contracted form when speaking I dont like – he doesnt like They dont watch – she doesnt watch In the negative the verb is always an infinitive
The Present Continuous - function The Present Continuous is used: 1. For temporary situations Hes staying with friends (at the moment) 2. For actions at (or around) the time of speaking Hes looking for a new job (at the moment) 3. For fixed arrangements in the future Im going to London Tomorrow (its all arranged - I have already bought the tickets)
The Present Continuous - structure The Present continuous is formed with the verb to be (I am, you are, he is, she is, etc) and we add ing to the principal verb He is going to London next week In the negative we add not (I am not, you are not, he is not, plus the ing She is not going to London next week We usually use a contracted form when speaking Im not, you arent, he isnt, she isnt going to…….
The Present Perfect - Function The Present Perfect is used: 1. For actions which happened at an unstated time in the past. He has sold his car. (When – we dont know) 2. For actions which started in the past and continue up to the present. She has lived in Telde for 10 years. ( She still does). 3. To express actions which have finished so recently that there is evidence in the present He has just painted the room. (the paint is still wet)
The Present Perfect - Structure The Present Perfect is formed with have plus the past participle. In the 3 rd person we use has I have been to London. (I am back now) She has gone to London. (She is not back yet) He s been in London for 2 days. (Hes still there). To form the negative we add not and usually use a contracted form when speaking I havent / She hasnt been to London
The Past Tenses Simple Continuous Perfect
The Past Simple We use the past simple to talk about actions that started and finished in the past. Examples: I went to the cinema I saw John in the high street Peter had eggs for breakfast
Structure of the Past Simple Regular Verbs – add ed look – looked, clean – cleaned, wait – waited. t d id Verbs ending in y change y to ied worry – worried - worried The past participle takes the same form look – looked - looked Irregular verbs Eat – ate – eaten, buy – bought – bought swim – swam – swum, take – took - taken
The Past Continuous - Function We use the Past Continuous: 1. for an action that was in the middle of happening at a stated time in the past. She was watching TV at 8 oclock last night. 2. for two or more actions which were happening at the same time in the past. They were cleaning while he was painting. 3. For a past action which was in progress when another action interrupted it. (Past continuous for the interrupted action and past simple for the action which interrupts it). She was watching TV when the telephone rang.
Past Continuous - Structure The past continuous is formed with the verb to be in the past tense was / were plus an infinitive verb + ing Examples: He was running. They were cooking at 8 oclock last night. Tim was studying when John walked in.
The Past Perfect - Function We use the Past Perfect: 1. For a past action which happened before another past action. They had already gone when I arrived home. 2. For an action which happened before a stated time in the past. She had cleaned the house by 4 oclock. 3. As the past equivalent of the Present Perfect. She isnt in her office. She has already left. She wasnt in her office. She had already left.
The Past Perfect - Structure We form the Past Perfect with had + the past participle She had eaten lunch. They had cleaned the house. We form the negative with had not She had not eaten lunch. They had not When we speak - we use the contracted form She hadnt eaten lunch. They hadnt cleaned the house.
Past Perfect Continuous - Function The Past Perfect Continuous is used: 1. for an action continuing up to a specific time in the past. He had been waiting for an hour before she arrived. 2. For a continuous, past action which had visible results or effect in the past. He was tired. He had been painting his room all morning. (You can see the fatigue - and the paint is not dry yet). 3. As the past equivalent of the Present Perfect continuous.
Past Perfect Continuous - Structure We form the Past Perfect Continuous with had been plus the infinitive verb plus - ing. She had been shopping. They had been fishing. In reality it is the past equivalent of the Present Perfect Continuous. Present. He is tired. He has been working hard. Past. He was tired. He had been working hard.
The Future Tenses Will Going to Present Continuous with a future time
The Will Future The Will future is used: 1. To express on the spot decisions. Its cold! Ill close the window. 2. To express predictions, promises etc. I think it will rain tomorrow 3. When it is not certain that something will happen (it is really a prediction/possibility) If he comes early, we will go to the theatre.
The Will Future We use the Will future to express: warnings, predictions, offers, promises, threats, requests, suggestions, opinions, hopes and fears, especially with words such as: think, expect, suppose, hope, believe, know probably etc. Notice - We use the infinitive form of the verb: I will buy a new shirt. I will close the window. Its very cold.
Will and Shall NOTE: Shall is used with I and we in questions, suggestions and offers. Question. What shall we do tonight? Lets go to the cinema. Offer. Shall I open the window? Yes, its hot in here. Suggestion. Shall we go to the beach? Yes, good idea. We can use this structure when we want someone else to make the decision.
The going to Future The going to future is used: 1. To express things already decided in the future She is going to fly to Madrid tomorrow. 2. To express intention. He likes acting. He is going to be an actor. 3. When there is evidence that something will definitely happen. Watch out!! Youre going to hit your head. Structure. We use the verb to be + going to + the infinitive form of the verb.
Future with the Present Continuous We can also use the Present Continuous tense to express the future, but we must remember give a future time as a reference. Hes going to Madrid this afternoon. Shes visiting her parents next week. Examples. Theyre washing the car. (now, at this moment) Theyre washing the car on Friday. (Future). Theyre going to wash the car (on Friday)
Other Future expressions Future Continuous. Where will John be next Monday? He will be in London. He will be visiting his parents. Future Perfect Did you know that Tims on holiday ? Yes. He will have visited five different countries by the end of the month.