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Grammar Review Topic One: Tenses
Structure of the lecture:
THE TIME LINE: Time Line Past Future Now
The Simple: Simple present
It snows in Alaska. Tom watches television every day. Link 1 Events or situations that exist Alsways, usually, habitually; Exists now, have existed past, and probably will exist in the future.
The Simple: Simple past
It snowed yesterday. Tom watched television last night.
The Simple: Simple Future
It will snow tomorrow. It is going to snow tomorrow. Tom will watch television tonight. Tom is going to watch television tonight. (Link 1)
The Progressive: be + v.-ing Present Progressive
Am/is/are doing… Tom is sleeping right now.
The Progressive: be +v.-ing Past Progressive
was/were doing Tom was sleeping when I arrived.
The Progressive: be + v.-ing Future Progressive
will be doing… Tom will be sleeping when we arrive. Link 2
The Perfect: have + v-ed Present Perfect
has/have done… Tom has already eaten.
The Perfect: have + -ed Past Perfect
had done… Tom had already eaten when his friend arrived.
The Perfect: have + v-ed Future Perfect
will have done… Tom will already have eaten when his friend arrives. Link 4
Perfect Progressive: have + been + -ing Present Perfect Progressive
has/have been doing… Tom has been studying for two hours.
Perfect Progressive: have + been + -ing Past Perfect Progressive
had been doing… Tom had been studying for two hours before his friend came.
Perfect Progressive: have + been + -ing Future Perfect Progressive
will have been doing… Tom will have been studying for two hours by the time his friend arrives. Link 5
Summary: The Simple
Summary: The Progressive
Summary: The Perfect
Summary: The Perfect Progressive
Simple Present Vs. Present Progressive
I ______ for two hours every night. (Study) John ________ right now. (sleep) study– habitual or everyday activity is sleeping— in progress at the moment of speaking See Link 7 for more practice exercises
Stative Verbs Yum! This food ______ (taste) good. I _____ (like) it very much. The chef is in his kitchen. He ______ (taste) the sauce. tastes, like: have stative meanings; describe a state that exists. is tasting: an action See Link 8 for a list of stative verbs
Am/is/are being +Adjective
Jack doesn’t feel well, but he refuses to see a doctor. He _____(be) foolish. Sue never does anything right. She ___ (be) foolish. is being: a temporary, in-progress behavior is: Click on link 9 for more exercises
Simple Past– Irregular Verbs
I ______ (buy) a new car three days ago. I ______(bring) back home a big pile of books to read last night. bought brought Click on Link 10 for a list of irregular Verbs
Past Progressive Vs. Simple past
While I _______ (walk) down the street, it ______ (begin) to rain. was walking; began: one action (walk) began earlier and was in the progress when the other action (begin) occurred. Click on Link 10 for more exercises
Present Perfect _____ you _____ (visit) Mexico?
I _______ (meet) many people since I came here in June. Have…visited: The exact time it happened is not important; adverbs: ever, never, already, yet, still, just have met: repetition before Now; so far, since Click on Link 12 for more exercises
Present Perfect vs. Simple past
I can not get into my apartment now. I ______ (lose) my key. I did something stupid yesterday. I ____(lose) my key. have lost: something happened at the past and it has an effect till now. lost: something that happened in the past.
Present Perfect Progressive
You ___(study) for five straight hours. I __ (think) about changing my major. have been studying: Duration of an action, used with for, since, all day… have been thinking: general activity in progress recently, lately
Present Perfect Progressive
I ___ (live) here since 1995. have lived; have been living: words like work, study Click on Link 13 for more exercises
Past Perfect Sam ___ already ___ (leave) when Ann got there.
Sam ___ (leave) before Ann ____(get) there. had…left had left/left; got: with before or after Click on Link 14 for more exercises
Will vs. Be going to To express a prediction
Be careful! You ____ (hurt) yourself! Watch out! You ___ (hurt) yourself! will hurt; are going to hurt A prediction: a statement about something s/he thinks will be true or will occur in the future, either will or be going to is possible. See GIU U19
Will vs. Be going to To express a prior plan
Why did you buy this paint? I ____ (paint) my bedroom tomorrow. am going to paint a prior plan: something the speaker intends to do in the future because in the past s/he has made a plan or decision to do it; In this case, only be going to is used.
Will vs. Be going to To express willingness
A:The phone’s ringing. B: I __ (get) it. My friend told me that he would call me this afternoon at six. It is noon time. I __________(answer) the phone at six. will get it: no prior plan, volunteer; use Will only. am going to answer: with prior plan Click on Link 15 for more exerices
Time cause: When/before/after…
Bob will come soon. When Bob ____ (come), we ____ (see) him. comes; will see: Time cause= When/before.. + subject + verb. The meaning of time cause is future, but the simple tense is used. Click on Link 16 for more exercises.
Present Progressive -Future
My wife has an appointment with a doctor. She _______ (see) Dr. North next Tuesday. is seeing used when the idea concerns a planned event or definite intention. Click on Link 18 for more exercises.
More Exercises for Practice
Review of Verb Tenses: Link 19 Link 20 Link 21
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