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©2002 Prentice Hall Development Over the Life Span Chapter 14
©2002 Prentice Hall Development Over the Life Span From conception to the first year. Cognitive development. Moral development. Gender development. Adolescence. Adulthood. Are Adults Prisoners of Childhood?
©2002 Prentice Hall From Conception to the First Year Prenatal development. The infants world. Attachment. How critical are the early years?
©2002 Prentice Hall Prenatal development Conception 30 Hours 6 weeks4 months
©2002 Prentice Hall Agents That Cross The Placenta German measles. X-rays, other radiation, toxic chemicals. Sexually transmitted diseases. Cigarette smoking. Alcohol. Drugs other than alcohol.
©2002 Prentice Hall The Infants World. Physical abilities. Social skills. Culture and maturation.
©2002 Prentice Hall Physical Abilities Newborn Reflexes Rooting Sucking Swallowing Moro (startle) Babinski Grasp Stepping
©2002 Prentice Hall Social Skills Babies will turn their heads towards a face at 9 minutes old. By 4-6 weeks babies are smiling regularly. Synchrony First conversations involve babies exchanging nonverbal signals with others in a rhythmic pattern.
©2002 Prentice Hall Culture and Maturation Many aspects of development depend on cultural customs. Examples include an infants ability to sleep alone. Recommendation to have babies sleep on their back has affected onset of crawling. A a result, many babies now skip crawling.
©2002 Prentice Hall Attachment Contact comfort. Separation and security. What causes insecure attachment?
©2002 Prentice Hall Attachment A deep emotional bond that an infant develops with its primary caretaker. Contact Comfort In primates, the innate pleasure derived from close physical contact; it is the basis of the infants first attachment.
©2002 Prentice Hall Separation Anxiety Tested using the Strange Situation Test A parent-infant separation and reunion procedure that is staged in a laboratory to test the security of a childs attachment Secure Attachment A parent-infant relationship in which the baby is secure when the parent is present, distressed by separation, and delighted by reunion. Insecure Attachment: A parent-infant relationship in which the baby clings to the parent, cries at separation, and reacts with anger or apathy to reunion.
©2002 Prentice Hall What Causes Separation Anxiety? Parenting that is truly abusive, neglectful or erratic. Childs genetically influenced temperament. Stressful circumstances in the family.
©2002 Prentice Hall How Critical are the Early Years? During the first 15 months, there is an explosion of new synapses in the brain. As information is consolidated, these unnecessary synapses are pruned away. Media has exaggerated and oversimplified research findings which have fostered public alarm and worry. The brain continues developing after the first three years.
©2002 Prentice Hall Cognitive Development Language. Thinking. Moral Reasoning.
©2002 Prentice Hall Language Acquisition of speech begins in the first few months. They are responsive to pitch, intensity, and sound. By 4-6 mo of age they can recognize their names and repetitive words. By 6 mo - 1yr, infants become familiar with sentence structure and start babbling. By 11mo, infants use symbolic gestures. About 12mo, infants use words to label objects mo, toddlers combine 2 or 3 words into sentences, also known as telegraphic speech
©2002 Prentice Hall Thinking According to Piaget, cognitive development consists of mental adaptations to new observations and experiences. Adaptation takes two forms: Assimilation or absorbing new information into existing cognitive structures. Accommodation or modifying existing cognitive structures in response to experience and new information.
©2002 Prentice Hall Adaptation
©2002 Prentice Hall Piagets Stages of Development Sensorimotor. Preoperational. Concrete Operational. Formal Operational.
©2002 Prentice Hall Sensorimotor Stage (Birth - 2yrs) Coordinates sensory information with bodily movements. Major accomplishment is object permanence. The understanding that an object continues to exist even when you cannot see or touch it.
©2002 Prentice Hall Preoperational Stage (2ys - 7yrs) Focused on limitations of childrens thinking. Children at this age could not reason. Children were missing operations Mental actions that are cognitively reversible. Children were egocentric. Seeing the world from only your point of view; the inability to take someone elses perspective. Children cannot grasp the concept of conservation. Understanding that physical properties of objects can remain the same even when their form changes.
©2002 Prentice Hall Conservation of Liquid Task The critical question is always: Why do you think so?
©2002 Prentice Hall Conservation of Substance & Number Conservation of Substance Two identical balls of clay One is deformed Do the two pieces have the same amount of clay? Conservation of Number Two identical rows of pennies One row is rearranged Do the two rows have the same number of pennies?
©2002 Prentice Hall Concrete Operations Stage ( yrs) Childrens thinking is still grounded in concrete experiences and concepts but they can now understand conservation, reversibility and cause and effect.
©2002 Prentice Hall Formal Operations Stage (12yrs through adulthood) Teenagers are capable of abstract reasoning: Understanding that ideas can be compared and classified. Reasoning about situations not personally experienced. Thinking about the future. Searching systematically for solutions to problems.
©2002 Prentice Hall Evaluating Piagets Theory Stage changes are neither as clear-cut nor as sweeping as Piaget believed. Children sometimes understand more than Piaget believed. Preschoolers are not as egocentric as Piaget thought. Cognitive development depends on the childs education and culture Piaget overestimated the cognitive skills of many adults.
©2002 Prentice Hall The Infant as Intuitive Physicist Infants look longer at objects that seem to violate physical laws than those that do not Surprise indicates that their expectations were violated They must know what is physically plausible for this to occur
©2002 Prentice Hall Moral Development Moral reasoning. Kohlbergs approach Gilligans approach Moral behavior. Strategies for teaching moral behavior. Power assertion. Induction.
©2002 Prentice Hall Moral Reasoning: Kohlbergs Theory Preconventional Level Punishment and obedience. Instrumental relativism. Conventional Level Good boy-nice girl. Society-maintaining. Postconventional Level Social contract. Universal ethical principles.
©2002 Prentice Hall Criticisms of Kohlbergs Theory Tends to overlook educational and cultural influences. Some cultural differences not reflected in this theory. Moral reasoning is often inconsistent across situations. Connection between moral reasoning and moral behavior is often indirect.
©2002 Prentice Hall Moral Reasoning: Gilligan s Theory Argued that men tend to base their moral choices on abstract principles of law and justice and women based moral decisions on principles of compassion and caring.
©2002 Prentice Hall Criticism of Gilligans Theory Meta-analyses do not suggest such a difference occurs. Both sexes use abstract principles when resolving abstract dilemmas and care perspectives when resolving personal dilemmas. Moral reasoning of either kind unrelated to behavior.
©2002 Prentice Hall Moral Behavior In addition to cognitively understanding right from wrong, childrens ability to behave morally is based on the development of moral emotions such as shame, guilt and empathy. Techniques used by parents include power assertion and induction.
©2002 Prentice Hall Strategies for Teaching Moral Behavior Power assertion Parent uses punishment and authority to correct childs misbehavior. Users tend to be authoritarian. Induction Parent appeals to childs own resources, abilities, sense of responsibility, and feelings for others in correcting misbehavior. Users tend to be authoritative
©2002 Prentice Hall Gender Development Defining gender identity and gender typing. Influences on gender development..
©2002 Prentice Hall Gender Identity and Gender Typing Gender Identity The fundamental sense of being male or female; it is independent of whether the person conforms to social and cultural rules of gender. Gender Typing Process by which children learn the abilities, interests, personality traits, and behaviors associated with being masculine or feminine in their culture.
©2002 Prentice Hall Influences on Gender Development Biological factors. Biological researchers believe that early play and toy preferences have a basis in prenatal hormones, genes, or brain organization. Cognitive factors. Cognitive psychologists suggest that toy preferences are based on gender schemas or the mental network of knowledge, beliefs, metaphors and expectations about what it means to be male or female. Learning factors. Gender appropriate play may be reinforced by parents, teachers, and peers.
©2002 Prentice Hall Adolescence The physiology of adolescence. The psychology of adolescence.
©2002 Prentice Hall The Physiology of Adolescence Adolescence The period of life from puberty to adulthood. Puberty The age at which a person becomes capable of sexual reproduction. Menarche A girls first menstrual period. Spermarche A boys first ejaculation.
©2002 Prentice Hall Timing of puberty Onset of puberty depends on genetic and environmental factors. For example, body fat triggers the hormonal changes. Early versus late onset. Early maturing boys have more positive views of their bodies and are more likely to smoke, binge drink, break the law. Early maturing females are usually socially popular but also regarded by peer group as precocious and sexually active. They are more likely to fight with parents, drop out of school and have a negative body image.
©2002 Prentice Hall The Psychology of Adolescence Turmoil and adjustment. Separation and connection.
©2002 Prentice Hall Turmoil and adjustment Extreme turmoil and problems with adjustment are the exception rather than the rule. Three kinds of problems are more likely. Conflict with parents. Mood swings and depression. Higher rates of rule breaking and risky behavior.
©2002 Prentice Hall Separation and Connection Adolescents are trying to separate from parents but remain connected. Individuation The process of developing own opinions, values, and styles of dress and look. Quarrels with parents represent a shift from one-sided parental authority to a more reciprocal adult relationship.
©2002 Prentice Hall Adulthood Stages and ages. The transitions of life. Old age.
©2002 Prentice Hall Eriksons Eight Stages - I Trust vs. Mistrust Infancy (0-1 year) Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt Toddler (1-2 years) Initiative vs. Guilt Preschool (3-5 years) Industry vs. Inferiority Elementary School (6-12 years)
©2002 Prentice Hall Eriksons Eight Stages - II Identity vs. Role confusion Adolescence (13-19 years) Intimacy vs. Isolation Young adulthood (20-40 years) Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle adulthood (40-65 years) Integrity vs. Despair Late adulthood (65 and older)
©2002 Prentice Hall Current Approaches: Adult Development Psychological concerns can occur at anytime in life therefore stage theories are no longer used to understand how adults change or stay the same. Adults development involves the interrelations among: biological changes personality traits personal experiences historical events, the particular environments in which they live, and the friends & relationships they have.
©2002 Prentice Hall The Transitions of Life Emerging Adulthood (18-25) Phase of life distinctly different from adolescence and adulthood. In some ways an adult, in some ways not. The Middle Years (35-65) Perceived by many experiencing it as the prime of life. Menopause: The cessation of menstruation and the production of ova; it is usually a gradual process lasting up to several years.
©2002 Prentice Hall Old Age Some types of thinking changes, others stays the same. Fluid Intelligence: The capacity for deductive reasoning and the ability to use new information to solve problems; it is relatively independent of education and tends to decline in old age. Crystallized Intelligence Cognitive skills and specific knowledge of information acquired over a lifetime; it depends heavily on education and tends to remain stable over the lifetime.
©2002 Prentice Hall Intellectual Changes Over the Lifespan Some intellectual abilities dwindle with age. Numerical and verbal abilities remain relatively steady over the years.
©2002 Prentice Hall Old Age Apparent senility in the elderly is often caused by the combination of medications. Depression and passivity are the result of loss of meaningful activity, intellectual stimulation and control over events. Weakness and frailty are caused by sedentary lifestyles. Gerontologists estimate that only 30% of the physical losses associated with old age are genetically based. The rest is environmentally of psychologically based.
©2002 Prentice Hall Are Adults Prisoners of Childhood? Research psychologists have questioned the psychodynamic assumption that childhood traumas have emotional effects that inevitably continue into adulthood. There is considerable evidence that disputes this claim.
©2002 Prentice Hall Challenging Our Assumptions Recovery from war: Only 20% of WWII war orphans had problems after being adopted and moving to the U.S. Most of these eventually established happy lives. Recovery from abusive or alcoholic parents: Their children are at risk for developing these problems, but the majority do not. Recovery from sexual abuse: More emotional and behavioral symptoms, but most adjust and recover.
Development over the life span 14. Overview From conception to the first year Cognitive development Moral development Gender development Adolescence Adulthood.
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