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Socialization and Human Learning 3.3 investigate the relationship between socialization and the process of human learning.

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Presentation on theme: "Socialization and Human Learning 3.3 investigate the relationship between socialization and the process of human learning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Socialization and Human Learning 3.3 investigate the relationship between socialization and the process of human learning

2 Examine various theories of human learning Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory Erikson`s Psychological Development Kohlberg’s Moral Development Theory Gilligan’s Theory on Gender and Moral Development

3 Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory Stage 1: Sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2)  Understand through sensory contact and immediate action  Cannot engage in symbolic thought or use language  Gradually comprehend object permanence Stage 2: Preoperational stage (ages 2 to 7)  Begin to use words as mental symbols  Limited in ability to use logic to solve problems or realize physical objects may change but retain physical properties

4 Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory Stage 3: Concrete operational stage (ages 7 to 11)  Think in terms of tangible objects and actual events  Can draw conclusions about likely physical consequences  Begin to take the role of others (empathy starts) Stage 4: Formal operational stage (age 12 through adolescence)  Potential to engage in highly abstract thoughts and understand places, things, and event never seen  Think about the future and evaluate options

5 Kohlberg – Stages of Moral Development Preconventional level (ages 7-10): Perception based on punishment and obedience Evil behaviour is likely to be punished Good conduct based on avoidance of unwanted consequences Conventional level (age 10 through adulthood) Concerned about how they are perceived and how one conforms to rules Postconventional level (few adults read this stage) View morality in terms of individual rights Moral conduct is judged by principles based on human rights that transcend government and laws

6 Gilligan’s Theory on Gender and Moral Development Stage 1: Women are motivated primarily by selfish concerns (“This is what I want … this is what I need.” Stage 2: She increasingly recognizes her responsibility to others Stage 3: She makes her decision based on her desire to do the greatest good for both herself and for others. Men are socialized to make moral decisions based on a justice perspective (“What is the fairest to do?”), while women are socialized to make such decisions on a responsibility and care perspective (“Who will be hurt least?”)

7 Erikson`s Psychological Development Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 1) Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt (ages 1-3) Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt (ages 3-5) Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority (ages 6-11) Stage 5: Identity vs. Role confusion (ages 12-18) Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation (ages 18-35) Stage 7: Generativity vs. Self-absorption (ages 35-55) Stage 8: Integrity vs. Despair (maturity and old age)

8 Evaluation of Piaget (+)Useful insights into children’s logical thinking and how they invent/construct the rules that govern their understanding Asserts that children move from being totally influenced by external factors to being more autonomous (-) critics point out Piaget fails to address individual differences, including how gender or culture may influence beliefs and actions

9 Evaluation of Kohlberg (+) present interesting ideas about the moral judgments of children (-) critics challenge the universality of his stages of moral development (-) critics suggest the elaborate “moral dilemmas” he used are too abstract for children. When questions are made simpler, or when children are observed in natural settings, they often demonstrate sophisticated levels of moral reasoning

10 Evaluation of Gilligan (+) Subsequent research comparing women’s and men’s reasoning about moral dilemmas has support some of Gilligan’s assertions (-) Some research has not supported Gilligan’s assertions. Some researchers have not found women to be more compassionate than men. (+) Gilligan’s argument that people make moral decisions according to both abstract principles of justice and principles of compassion and care contributes to our knowledge about moral reasoning.

11 Evaluation of Erikson (+) The eight stages broaden the framework of Freud’s theory by focusing on social and cultural forces and by examining development throughout the life course. (+) The psychosocial approach encompasses the conflicts that coincide with major changes in a person’s social environment and describes how satisfactory resolution of these conflicts results in positive development. (-) Critics point out that his research was limited to white, middle-class respondents from industrial societies.

12 Evaluation of Erikson (+) Other scholars have used his theoretical framework to examine ethnic variations in the process of phychosocial development. Most conclude that all children face the same developmental tasks. (-) But children of colour often have greater difficulty in obtaining a positive outcome because of experiences with racial prejudice/discrimination. Establishing identity is difficult for most adolescents, especially those who experience stress related to conflicting value systems and lifestyles.


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