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Chapter 9 Psychological Development. Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology: The study of how organisms change over time as the result of biological.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Psychological Development. Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology: The study of how organisms change over time as the result of biological."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Psychological Development

2 Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology: The study of how organisms change over time as the result of biological and environmental influences

3 How Do Psychologists Explain Development? Development is a process of growth and change brought about by an interaction of heredity and the environment

4 Chapter 9: Development Biological, Cognitive, Social Throughout the lifespan Newborns have innate abilities for finding nourishment, interacting with others, and avoiding harmful situations; the developing abilities of infants and children rely on learning.

5 Prenatal Development Prenatal period : The developmental period before birth –Zygote: up to 14 days –Embryo: 14 days to end of 2 nd month –Fetus: 3 months to birth Placenta: An organ that develops between the embryo/fetus and the mother Teratogens: Toxic substances that can damage the developing organism

6 Neonatal Period (from birth to one month) Sensory abilities Motor abilities –Grasping reflex –Rooting reflex –Sucking reflex –Stepping reflex –Startle reflex –Swimming reflex –Postural reflex

7 Infancy (one month to about 18 months) Maturation: The unfolding of genetically programmed processes of growth and development over time

8 Maturation Timetable 1 month: responds to sound, vocalizes occasionally 2 months: smiles socially, recognizes care- giver, rolls from side to back, holds head up 3 months: vocalizes to sounds/smiles, searches for sound source, sits with support 4 months: gaze follows interesting objects, sits with less support

9 Maturation Timetable 5 months: discriminates b/w strangers & familiar persons, distinctive vocalizations 6 months: lifts objects, smiles at own image, reaches for objects 7 months: sits on own, crawls 8-9 months: verbalizes around 4 syllables, pulls to standing position months: plays hand games, stands alone 1 year: walks alone

10 Social and Emotional Development Theory of Mind: An awareness that other people’s behavior may be influenced by beliefs, desires, and emotions that differ from one’s own Temperament: An individual’s characteristic manner of behavior or reaction (strong biological origin) –What’s your temperament?

11 Learning in Infancy (1-18 months) Conditioning – classical and operant Imprinting – form an immediate attachment –in animals, not really children

12 Attachment Styles Humans apparently have an inborn need for attachment – deep, enduring socio- emotional relationship with another Strange Situation (Ainsworth, 1978) –Secure attachment –Insecure attachment Anxious-ambivalent attachment Avoidant attachment Harlow’s Contact Comfort Studies

13 1.Authoritarian parents 2.Permissive parents (permissive-indulgent) 3.Uninvolved parents (permissive indifferent) 4.Authoritative parents Social and Emotional Development Most approaches to child rearing fall into one of the following styles (Baumrind):

14 What Are the Developmental Tasks of Infancy and Childhood? Infants and children face especially important developmental tasks in the areas of cognition and social relationships – tasks that lay a foundation for further growth in adolescence and adulthood

15 Cognitive Development Jean Piaget Cognitive development: The process by which thinking changes over time Schemas: Mental structures or programs that guide a developing child’s thoughts

16 Cognitive Development These underlie all cognitive growth… Assimilation: Mental process that modifies new information to fit it into existing schemas Accommodation: Mental process that restructures existing schemas so that new information is better understood

17 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operational Formal Operational

18 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operational Formal Operational Birth to about age 2 Relies on innate motor responses to stimuli Schemas – see & touch Sensorimotor intelligence Mastery of these marks end of stage: Mental representations Object permanence(clip)

19 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operational Formal Operational About age 2 to age 6/7 Marked by well-developed mental representation and the use of language Seen in this stage: Centration (clip) Egocentrism Animistic thinking Artificialism

20 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operational Formal Operational About age Child is incapable of abstract thought Simple logic only Conservation (clip) Mental operations

21 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operational Formal Operational From about age 12 on Abstract thought appears

22 What Changes Mark the Transition of Adolescence? Adolescence offers new developmental challenges growing out of physical changes, cognitive changes, and socio-emotional changes

23 Gender… Roles – how one should feel, act, & think Identity – sense of being male or female Schema – mental set of what society deems appropriate behavior for each sex Role stereotypes – broad categories that reflect our beliefs about males/females Androgyny – presence of desirable mas/ fem characteristics in one person

24 Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Age/Period Principal Challenge 0 to 1 1/2 years Trust vs. mistrust 1 1/2 to 3 years Autonomy vs. self doubt 3 to 6 years Initiative vs. guilt 6 years to puberty Confidence (Industry) vs. inferiority Adolescence Identity vs. role confusion Early adulthood Intimacy vs. isolation Middle adulthood Generativity vs. stagnation Late adulthood Ego-integrity vs. despair

25 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning I. Preconventional morality –Stage 1: Pleasure/pain orientation –Stage 2: Cost/benefit orientation; reciprocity II. Conventional morality –Stage 3: “Good child” orientation –Stage 4: Law-and-order orientation III. Postconventional (principled) morality –Stage 5: Social contract orientation –Stage 6: Ethical principle orientation

26 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning Not tightly linked to one’s age Moves from morality based on reward/ punishment to one based on abstract ethical principles. Gender and morality –Carol Gilligan: Kohlberg’s stages are biased; based on males; female morality embedded in social relationships

27 What Developmental Challenges Do Adults Face? Nature and nurture continue to produce changes throughout life, but in adulthood these changes include both growth and decline

28 The Developmental Challenges of Adulthood Early Adulthood (Erikson) –Intimacy versus isolation Middle Adulthood (Erikson) –Generativity versus stagnation –Generativity: making a commitment beyond oneself to family, work, society, or future generations

29 The Last Developmental Issues You Will Face Impact on physical, cognitive, social and emotional abilities: –Vision, hearing, thinking/learning/problem solving, memory, sexual functioning, selective social interaction, emotions 5 Stages of Death/Dying/Grieving (Kubler-Ross): Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance Late Adulthood (Erikson) –Ego-integrity vs. Despair –Ego-integrity: ability to look back on life without regrets and to enjoy a sense of wholeness


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