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Chapter 3: Infancy & Childhood

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1 Chapter 3: Infancy & Childhood
Section 1: Physical, Perceptual, and Language Development Section 2: Cognitive & Emotional Development Section 3: Parenting Styles & Social Development

2 Section 1: Physical, Perceptual, and Language Development
Developmental psychology: the study of changes that occur as an individual matures Nature and Nurture Newborns Capacities Grasping reflex: an infant’s clinging response to a touch on the palm of the hand Rooting reflex: an infant’s response in turning toward the source o touching that occurs anywhere around the mouth (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Physical Development Infant average birth weight = 7.3 pounds Maturation: the internally programmed growth of a child Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior that happens as a result o experience Perceptual Development Visual cliff Language Development Can animals use language? chimps Grammar How do children acquire language? Telegraphic speech: the kind of verbal utterances in which words are left out, but the meaning is usually clear Where my doll I goed to school (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

4 Section 2: Cognitive & Emotional Development
Cognitive Development How does knowing change? Schema: a conceptual framework a person uses to make sense of the world Assimilation: the process of fitting objects and experiences into one’s schemas Accommodation: the adjustment of one’s schemas to include newly observed events and experiences Object permanence: a child’s realization that an object exisits even when he/she cannot see or touch it Representational thought: the intellectual ability of a child to picture something in his/her mind (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

The principle of conservation Conservation: the principle that a given quality does not change when its appearance changes Egocentric: a young child’s inability to understand another person’s perspective Jean Piaget & the stages of cognitive development Sensorimotor Birth – 2 years Preoperational 2-7 years Concrete operations 7-11 years Formal operations 11- and beyond (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Emotional Development Experiments on animals Imprinting: inherited tendency of some newborns to follow the first moving object they see Critical period: a specific time in development when certain skills or abilities are most easily learned Surrogate Mothers Wire vs. cloth Human Infants Attachment at 6 months – 3 years Separation anxiety Stranger situation Secure attachment Avoidant attachment Resistant attachment (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

7 Section 3: Parenting Styles & Social Development
Authoritarian: parents attempt to control and evaluate the behavior and attitudes of children and adolescents in accordance with a set code of conduct Democratic/Authoritative: children and adolescents participate in decisions affecting their lives Permissive/Laissez-Faire: children and adolescents have the final say; parents are less controlling and have a non-punishing, accepting attitude toward children (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Effects of Parenting Styles Establishment of limits Assuming responsibility Indentifying with parents Independence Child Abuse The physical or mental injury, sexual abuse, negligent treatment, or mistreatment of children under the age of 18 by adults entrusted with their care 906,000 confirmed cases in 2003 Why is there child abuse? What constitutes child abuse? Spanking? Yelling? (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Social Development Socialization: the process of learning the rules of behavior of the culture within which an individual is born and will live How can we describe socialization? What is the reason for socialization? Give examples of how we learn socialization in school… (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

10 Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development
Oral Stage –infant seeks pleasure around mouth (0-18 months) Anal Stage – infant seeks pleasure centered on functions of elimination (18months- 3 years) Phallic Stage – infant seeks pleasure centered around genitals (3 – 6 years) Latency Stage – sexual thoughts repressed; focus on developing social and intellectual skills (6 years – puberty) Genital Stage – sexual desires renewed; individual seeks relationships with others (puberty through adulthood) Identification – the process by which a child adopts the values and principles of the same gender parent Sublimation – the process of redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

11 Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
Life periods in which an individual’s goal is to satisfy desires associated with social needs Stages 1 –trust versus mistrust (early infancy) 2 –autonomy versus shame and doubt (1-3) 3 –initiative versus guilt (3-6) 4 –industry versus inferiority (6-12) 5 –identity versus role confusion (early teens) 6 –intimacy versus isolation (young adult) 7 –generality versus stagnation (middle adult) 8 –ego integrity versus despair (older adult) (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

12 Cognitive-Development Approach
Games and Play Role taking: children’s play that involves assuming adult roles, thus enabling the child to experience different points of view Teacher Storekeeper Ninja Parent So how do these prepare the child for later life? (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Moral Development Moral reasoning: deciding what is right or wrong The dying wife and the robbery What is a moral dilemma? Stealing a loaf of bread for a hungry child Is that a moral dilemma? Examples Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Pre-conventional Obedience and punishment Instrumental relativist Conventional Good/bad Law and order Post-Conventional Social contract Universal ethics principle (c) 2007 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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