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Chapter 10: Human Development Across the Life Span.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: Human Development Across the Life Span."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10: Human Development Across the Life Span

2 Development Physical, behavioral, cognitive, and personality changes or lack of changes that occur throughout the lifespan.

3 Chronological Periods Prenatal Infancy Preschool/Early Childhood School Age/Middle Childhood Adolescence Early Adulthood Middle Adulthood Late Adulthood Conception – Birth 0 to 2 2 to 5/6 6 to 12 12 to 20 20 to 40 40 to 65 65 and older

4 Prenatal Period Conception - Birth

5 Conception Zygote –One-celled organism formed by the union of the sperm and the egg. –Usually occurs in fallopian tubes.

6 Female Reproductive Organs


8 Fertilization 152814 Egg is viable for 24 hours Sperm is viable for 3 to 5 days “Unsafe period” is from day 9 to 15 if ovulation occurs on day 14 day 7 to 17 could be unsafe

9 Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development 3 phases –Germinal stage = Conception to 2 weeks Conception Implantation Formation of placenta

10 Fertilization 152814 Many miscarriages happen at the end of the Germinal phase Many sexually active women of childbearing age have had a miscarriage and did not know it. 1

11 Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development 3 phases –Embryonic stage = 2 weeks – 2 months Formation of vital organs and systems Most birth defects occur during this stage Sexual differentiation

12 Progress Before Birth: Prenatal Development 3 phases –Fetal stage = 2 months – birth Bodily growth continues, movement capability begins, brain cells multiply Age of viability – 22 to 26 weeks Movement can be felt Average weight and height

13 Figure 10.1 Overview of fetal development

14 Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development Maternal nutrition –Malnutrition linked to increased risk of birth complications, neurological problems, and psychopathology Maternal drug use –Tobacco, alcohol, prescription, and recreational drugs –Fetal alcohol syndrome

15 Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development Maternal illness –Rubella, syphilis, mumps, genital herpes, AIDS, severe influenza –Prenatal health care –Prevention through guidance

16 Childhood 0-12 years

17 The Childhood Years: Motor Development Basic Principles –Cephalocaudal trend – head to foot –Proximodistal trend – center-outward Maturation – gradual unfolding of genetic blueprint Developmental norms – median age –Cultural variations

18 Attachment Theories Behaviorism –Food is a reinforcer Harlow’s Monkeys –Contact Comfort Bowlby –Biological Basis Current –Bi-directional

19 Early Emotional Development: Attachment Separation anxiety –Ainsworth (1979) –The strange situation and patterns of attachment Secure Anxious-ambivalent Anxious-Avoidant

20 Becoming Unique: Personality Development Stage theories, three components –progress through stages in order –progress through stages related to age –major discontinuities in development Erik Erikson (1963) –Eight stages spanning the lifespan –Psychosocial crises determining balance between opposing polarities in personality

21 Figure 10.6 Erikson’s stage theory

22 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Initiative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Confusion Intimacy vs. Isolation Generativity vs. Stagnation Integrity vs. Despair

23 The Growth of Thought: Cognitive Development Jean Piaget (1920s-1980s) –Children think different at different ages –Basic Concepts Schemes Adaptation –Assimilation/ –Accommodation

24 Figure 10.7 Piaget’s stage theory

25 Cognitive Development Jean Piaget 4 stages and major milestones Sensorimotor –Object permanence Preoperational –Centration, Egocentrism Concrete Operational –Decentration, Reversibility, Conservation Formal Operational –Abstraction

26 Figure 10.8 Piaget’s conservation task

27 Evaluating Piaget’s Theory Criticisms –Piaget underestimated children’s abilities –Problems with stage theories –Universality Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory

28 The Development of Moral Reasoning Kohlberg (1976) –Reasoning as opposed to behavior Moral dilemmas –Measured nature and progression of moral reasoning –3 levels, each with 2 sublevels Preconventional Conventional Postconventional

29 Figure 10.10 Kohlberg’s stage theory

30 Adolescence: Physiological Changes Puberty –Secondary sex characteristics –Primary sex characteristics Menarche Spermarche –Maturation: early vs. late

31 Figure 10.12 Physical development at puberty

32 Adolescence: Neural Changes Increasing myelinization Changes in prefrontal cortex

33 The Search for Identity Erik Erikson (1968) –Key challenge - forming a sense of identity James Marcia (1988) –Four identity statuses Identity diffusion Identity foreclosure Identity moratorium Identity achievement

34 The Expanse of Adulthood Early Adulthood Middle Adulthood Late Adulthood

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