614 Perceptual abilities Visual abilities Other senses Quickly develops beyond initial range of eight inchesCan distinguish contrasts, shadows, and edgesOther sensesHearingTouchOlfaction
7Culture and maturation 14Culture and maturationMany aspects of development depend on customsBaby’s ability to sleep aloneRecommendation to have babies sleep on their back has caused many babies to skip crawling.
814AttachmentA deep emotional bond that an infant develops with its primary caretakerContact comfortIn primates, the innate pleasure derived from close physical contactThe basis of the infant’s first attachmentTested using strange situationA parent-infant “separation and reunion” procedure that is staged in a laboratory to test the security of a child’s attachment
914 Types of attachment Secure Insecure A parent-infant relationship in which the baby is secure when the parent is present, distressed by separation, and delighted by reunion.InsecureA parent-infant relationship in which the baby clings to the parent, cries at separation, and reacts with anger or apathy to reunion.
10The rise and fall of separation anxiety 14The rise and fall of separation anxiety
11What causes insecure attachment? 14What causes insecure attachment?Parenting that is truly abusive, neglectful, or erraticChild’s genetically influenced temperamentStressful circumstances in the family
12How critical are the early years? 14How critical are the early years?During the first 15 months, there is an explosion of new synapses in the brain. As information is consolidated, unnecessary synapses are pruned away.Media has exaggerated and oversimplified research findings, fostering public alarm and worry.The brain continues developing beyond the first three years.
1314Language developmentAcquisition of speech begins in the first few months.Infants are responsive to pitch, intensity, and sound.By 4-6 months of age children can recognize their names and repetitive words.By 6-12 months they become familiar with sentence structure, start babbling.
1414 Language development By 11 months, infants use symbolic gestures. About 12 months, infants use words to label objects.18-24 months, toddlers combine 2-3 words into telegraphic speech.
1514ThinkingAccording to Piaget, cognitive development consists of mental adaptations to new observations.Two adaptive processesAssimilation: absorbing new information into existing cognitive structuresAccommodation: modifying existing cognitive structures in response to new information
1614Your turnAt what age will children recognize that the two clay balls on the right have the same amount of clay as the two balls on the left?1. Ages 0-22. Ages 2-73. Ages 7-124. Ages 12 and over
1714 Sensorimotor stage Birth–2 years Major accomplishment is object permanence.The understanding that an object continues to exist even when you cannot see or touch it
1814 Preoperational stage Ages 2–7 Focused on limitations of children’s thinking.Children at this age could not reason.Unable to perform operationsEgocentricCannot grasp concept of conservation
1914 Conservation Of substance Of number “Do the two pieces have the same amount of clay?”Of number“Do the two rows have the same number of pennies?”
2014 Concrete operations Ages 7–12 Children’s thinking is still grounded in concrete experiences and concepts, but they can now understand conservation, reversibility, and causation.
21Formal operations stage 14Formal operations stageAges 12–adulthoodTeenagers are capable of abstract reasoningCan compare and classify ideasCan reason about situations not personally experiencedCan think about the futureCan search systematically for solutions
22Evaluating Piaget’s theory 14Evaluating Piaget’s theoryStage changes are neither as clear cut nor as sweeping as Piaget thought.Children sometimes understand more than Piaget thought.Preschoolers are not as egocentric as Piaget thought.Cognitive development depends on the child’s education and culture.Piaget overestimated the cognitive skills of many adults.
2314Intuitive physicsInfants look longer at objects that seem to violate physical laws than those that do not.Surprise indicates their expectations were violated.They must know what is physically plausible for this to occur.
24Moral reasoning: Kohlberg’s theory 14Moral reasoning: Kohlberg’s theoryPre-conventional levelPunishment and obedienceInstrumental relativismConventional levelGood boy–nice girlSociety-maintainingPost-conventional levelSocial contractUniversal ethical principles
25Criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory 14Criticisms of Kohlberg’s theoryTends to overlook educational and cultural influencesSome cultural differences not reflected in theoryMoral reasoning is often inconsistent across situations.Connection between moral reasoning and moral behavior is often indirect.
26Moral reasoning: Gilligan’s theory 14Moral reasoning: Gilligan’s theoryMen tend to base their moral choices on abstract principles of law and justice while women base moral decisions on principles of compassion and caring.
27Criticisms of Gilligan’s theory 14Criticisms of Gilligan’s theoryMeta-analyses do not find such a difference.Both sexes use abstract principles when resolving abstract dilemmas and care perspectives when resolving personal dilemmas.Moral reasoning of either kind unrelated to behavior.
2814Moral behaviorIn addition to cognitively understanding right from wrong, children’s ability to behave morally is based on the development of moral emotions such as shame, guilt, and empathy.Techniques used by parents include power assertion and induction.
29Teaching moral behavior 14Teaching moral behaviorPower assertionParent uses punishment and authority to correct misbehavior.Users tend to be authoritarian.InductionParent appeals to child’s own resources, abilities, sense of responsibility, and feelings for others in correcting misbehavior.Users tend to be authoritative.
30Gender identity and typing 14Gender identity and typingGender identityThe fundamental sense of being male or female, independent of whether the person conforms to social and cultural rules of genderGender typingProcess by which children learn the abilities, interests, personality traits, and behaviors associated with being masculine or feminine in their culture
31Influences on gender development 14Influences on gender developmentBiological factorsBiological researchers believe that early play and toy preferences have a basis in prenatal hormones, genes, or brain organization.Cognitive factorsCognitive psychologists suggest that toy preferences are based on gender schemas or the mental network of knowledge, beliefs, metaphors, and expectations about what it means to be male or female.Learning factorsGender appropriate play may be reinforced by parents, teachers, and peers.
33Physiology of adolescence 14Physiology of adolescenceAdolescencePeriod of life from puberty until adulthoodPubertyThe age at which a person becomes capable of sexual reproductionMenarcheA girl’s first menstrual periodSpermarcheA boy’s first ejaculation
3414Timing of pubertyOnset of puberty depends on genetic and environmental factors.E.g., body fat triggers the hormonal changesEarly vs. late onsetEarly maturing boys have more positive views of their bodies and are more likely to smoke, binge drink, and break the law.Early maturing girls are usually socially popular but also regarded by peer group as precocious and sexually active. They are more likely to fight with parents, drop out of school, and have a negative body image.
35Turmoil and adjustment 14Turmoil and adjustmentExtreme turmoil and problems with adjustment are the exception rather than the rule.Three kinds of problems are more likelyConflict with parentsMood swings and depressionHigher rates of rule-breaking and risky behavior
36Separation and connection 14Separation and connectionAdolescents are trying to separate from parents but remain connected.IndividuationThe process of developing one’s own opinions, values, style of dress, and lookQuarrels with parents represent a shift from one-sided parental authority to a more reciprocal adult relationship.
37Erikson’s eight stages 14Erikson’s eight stagesTrust vs. mistrustInfancy (birth-age 1)Autonomy vs. shame & doubtToddler (ages 1-2)Initiative vs. guiltPreschool (ages 3-5)Industry vs. inferiorityElementary school (ages 6-12)Identity vs. role confusionAdolescence (ages 13-19)Intimacy vs. isolationYoung adulthood (ages 20-40)Generativity vs. stagnationMiddle adulthood (ages 40-65)Integrity vs. despairLate adulthood (ages 65 and older)
3814Your turnAt what age, according to Erikson, are people likely to wrestle with whether they are able to deal with the tasks facing them in life?1. Age 42. Age 73. Age 154. Age 25
3914Your turnAt what age, according to Erikson, are people likely to wrestle with whether they are able to deal with the tasks facing them in life?1. Age 42. Age 73. Age 154. Age 25
4014Adult developmentPsychological concerns can occur at any time in life, therefore stage theories are no longer used to understand how adults change or stay the same.Adult development involves interactions amongBiological changesPersonality traitsPersonal experiencesHistorical eventsParticular environmentsFriends and relationships
41The transitions of life 14The transitions of lifeEmerging adulthood (ages 18-25)Phase of life distinct from adolescence and adulthoodIn some ways an adult, in some ways notThe middle years (ages 35-65)Perceived by many as the prime of lifeMenopause: the cessation of menstruation and the production of ova, usually a gradual process lasting several years
4314 Old age Some types of thinking change, others stay the same. Fluid intelligence: the capacity for deductive reasoning and the ability to use new information to solve problems; relatively independent of education, declines in old ageCrystallized intelligence: cognitive skills and specific knowledge of information acquired over a lifetime; depends heavily on education, remains stable over lifetime.
44Lifespan intellectual changes 14Lifespan intellectual changesSome intellectual abilities dwindle with age.Numerical and verbal abilities relatively stable
4514Old ageApparent senility often caused by combination of medicationsDepression and passivity are result of loss of meaningful activity, intellectual stimulation, and control over events.Weakness and frailty caused by sedentary lifestyles.Gerontologists estimate that only 30% of the physical losses associated with old age are genetically based. The rest is environmental or psychological.
46Are adults prisoners of childhood? 14Are adults prisoners of childhood?Research psychologists have questioned the psychodynamic assumption that childhood traumas have emotional effects that inevitably continue into adulthood.Considerable evidence disputes this claim.
47Challenging our assumptions 14Challenging our assumptionsRecovery from warOnly 20% of WWII war orphans had problems after being adopted and moving to the US. Most of these eventually established happy lives.Recovery from abusive or alcoholic parentsTheir children are at-risk for developing these problems, but most do not.Recovery from sexual abuseMore emotional and behavioral symptoms, but most adjust and recover.