2 Welcome to the DCII Course in Psychology This course offers you many useful applications in everyday life and YES many different career opportunities & choices.Provided you choose to work hard and take the course seriously!!!
3 Considerations before choosing the Course What Is Psychology?Psychology: the study of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and environment.What does it entail Studying?Behavior is anything we doovert actions and reactionsMental processes are our internal experiencesthoughts, feelings, memories…
4 Why should I study Psychology ? Psychology helps us scientifically evaluate common beliefs and misconceptions about behavior and mental processes.Can you identify which of the beliefs on the following slides are true or false?
5 The best way to learn and remember information is to “cram,” or study it intensively during one concentrated period.FALSE!This is the worst way to prepare for an exam! Don’t confuse this for a quicker method of study- students who cram often perform more poorly than those who do not study at all!Punishment is the most effective way to permanently change behavior.We will examine this ineffective practice when we begin our study of learning! Think about the prison system…a large scale example of punishment…does it work?
6 Eyewitness testimony is often unreliable. TRUE!Our memories are very fragile and subject to many variables. We will examine the influence of memory formation.Police often use psychics to help solve crimes.FALSE!It’s important to recognize the difference between psychology and pseudo-psychology, which includes the area of psychics.
7 A Pertinent Question Psychology is Scientific & Empirically Based Is Psychology the same as Common Sense?No, Psychology is not the same as Common Sense Information.As evident from the preceding slides psychological information is often misunderstood.Psychology is Scientific & Empirically BasedWe will examine each of these questions/ concerns in detail during this course.
8 Course Objectives & Organization To Introduce the field of psychologyHelp students develop an understanding of the Basic psychological processesAcquaint students with relevant applications of psychology as well as in everyday life.OrganizationIt is organized in four units.The units bring forth the nature, scope diverse domains, and utility of different psychological processes in different fields as well as our day-to-day lives.
9 Unit I: Orientation to Psychology Nature, Fields & ApplicationsBasic Psychological ProcessesLearning & MemoryMotivationPositive & Negative Emotions
10 Multiple Intelligences UNIT II: Understanding Individual Differences Personality Intelligence Abilities & Interests and more … …IntelligencePersonalityMultiple Intelligences
11 Is there something called Emotional Intelligence? Hummm… I didn’t know this buddy!!!
12 How do we become who we are? Drive for Self-ActualizationCultureLearningExperiencesUnconsciousConflicts &DefensesGeneticsPERSONALITY
13 PersonalityPersonality: the distinctive pattern of behavior, mannerisms, thoughts, and emotions that characterizes an individual over timeSomeone’s personality is comprised of various traitsTraits: habitual ways of behaving, thinking, and feeling (e.g., confident, pessimistic)
14 UNIT III: Understanding Developmental Processes
15 UNIT III: Understanding Developmental Processes
16 Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory Cognitive development consists of mental adaptations to new observations & experiences.Adaptation takes two forms:Assimilation: Absorbing new information into existing cognitive structures.“Bird”Accommodation: Modifying existing cognitive structures in response to experience and new information.“Bat”
18 Childhood: Kohlberg’sMoral Development Preconventional Level: doing the right thing is obeying authority and avoiding punishment. Later in this stage, there is the recognition of reciprocity (I’ll be good now because I might be rewarded for it later)Conventional Level: recognition that members of society must uphold its values, norms, and (later) lawsPostconventional Level: people are less concerned with maintaining society for it own sake, and more concerned with the principles and values that make for a good society (e.g., justice, freedom, treating others as you’d like to be treated)
19 Erikson: Psychosocial Theory Trust vs. MistrustInfancy (0-1 year)Autonomy vs. Shame and doubtToddler (1-2 years)Initiative vs. GuiltPreschool (3-5 years)Industry vs. InferiorityElementary School (6-12 years)Identity vs. Role confusionAdolescence (13-19 years)Intimacy vs. IsolationYoung adulthood (20-40 years)Generativity vs. StagnationMiddle adulthood (40-65 years)Integrity vs. DespairLate adulthood (65 and older)
20 UNIT IV: Application of Psychology WorkLawHealth