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UNDERSTANDING PSYCHOLOGY DC II COURSE.  Welcome to the DCII Course in Psychology  This course offers you many useful applications in everyday life and.

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Presentation on theme: "UNDERSTANDING PSYCHOLOGY DC II COURSE.  Welcome to the DCII Course in Psychology  This course offers you many useful applications in everyday life and."— Presentation transcript:


2  Welcome to the DCII Course in Psychology  This course offers you many useful applications in everyday life and YES many different career opportunities & choices.  Provided you choose to work hard and take the course seriously!!!

3 Considerations before choosing the Course  What Is Psychology?  Psychology: the study of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and environment.  What does it entail Studying?  Behavior is anything we do  overt actions and reactions  Mental processes are our internal experiences  thoughts, feelings, memories…

4  Why should I study Psychology ?  Psychology helps us scientifically evaluate common beliefs and misconceptions about behavior and mental processes.  Can you identify which of the beliefs on the following slides are true or false?

5  The best way to learn and remember information is to “cram,” or study it intensively during one concentrated period. FALSE!  This is the worst way to prepare for an exam! Don’t confuse this for a quicker method of study- students who cram often perform more poorly than those who do not study at all!  Punishment is the most effective way to permanently change behavior. FALSE!  We will examine this ineffective practice when we begin our study of learning! Think about the prison system…a large scale example of punishment…does it work?

6  Eyewitness testimony is often unreliable. TRUE!  Our memories are very fragile and subject to many variables. We will examine the influence of memory formation.  Police often use psychics to help solve crimes. FALSE!  It’s important to recognize the difference between psychology and pseudo-psychology, which includes the area of psychics.

7 A Pertinent Question  Is Psychology the same as Common Sense?  No, Psychology is not the same as Common Sense Information.  As evident from the preceding slides psychological information is often misunderstood.  Psychology is Scientific & Empirically Based  We will examine each of these questions/ concerns in detail during this course.

8 Course Objectives & Organization  Objectives  To Introduce the field of psychology  Help students develop an understanding of the Basic psychological processes  Acquaint students with relevant applications of psychology as well as in everyday life.  Organization  It is organized in four units.  The units bring forth the nature, scope diverse domains, and utility of different psychological processes in different fields as well as our day-to-day lives.

9 Unit I: Orientation to Psychology  Nature, Fields & Applications  Basic Psychological Processes  Learning & Memory  Motivation  Positive & Negative Emotions

10  Multiple Intelligences Personality Intelligence UNIT II: Understanding Individual Differences Personality Intelligence Abilities & Interests and more … …

11  Is there something called Emotional Intelligence?  Hummm… I didn’t know this buddy!!!

12 How do we become who we are? Drive for Self- Actualization Culture Learning Experiences Unconscious Conflicts & Defenses Genetics PERSONALITY

13 Personality  Personality: the distinctive pattern of behavior, mannerisms, thoughts, and emotions that characterizes an individual over time  Someone’s personality is comprised of various traits  Traits: habitual ways of behaving, thinking, and feeling (e.g., confident, pessimistic)

14 UNIT III: Understanding Developmental Processes


16 Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory  Cognitive development consists of mental adaptations to new observations & experiences.  Adaptation takes two forms:  Assimilation: Absorbing new information into existing cognitive structures. “Bird”  Accommodation: Modifying existing cognitive structures in response to experience and new information. “Bat”

17 Piaget’s Theory: Developmental Stages  Sensorimotor (birth-2 years)  Object permanence  Preoperational (ages 2-7)  Symbolic thought  Egocentric  Concrete Operational (ages 7-12)  Conservation  Reversible operations  Formal Operational (age 12-adulthood)  Abstract reasoning

18 Childhood: Kohlberg’sMoral Development  Preconventional Level: doing the right thing is obeying authority and avoiding punishment. Later in this stage, there is the recognition of reciprocity (I’ll be good now because I might be rewarded for it later)  Conventional Level: recognition that members of society must uphold its values, norms, and (later) laws  Postconventional Level: people are less concerned with maintaining society for it own sake, and more concerned with the principles and values that make for a good society (e.g., justice, freedom, treating others as you’d like to be treated)

19 Erikson: Psychosocial Theory  Trust vs. Mistrust  Infancy (0-1 year)  Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt  Toddler (1-2 years)  Initiative vs. Guilt  Preschool (3-5 years)  Industry vs. Inferiority  Elementary School (6-12 years)  Identity vs. Role confusion  Adolescence (13-19 years)  Intimacy vs. Isolation  Young adulthood (20-40 years)  Generativity vs. Stagnation  Middle adulthood (40-65 years)  Integrity vs. Despair  Late adulthood (65 and older)

20 UNIT IV: Application of Psychology  Work  Law  Health

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