Presentation on theme: "High Middle Ages 800 - 1500 The Age of Faith Between 800 and 1100, churches were built in the Romanesque style. These churches had round arches and tiny."— Presentation transcript:
High Middle Ages 800 - 1500 The Age of Faith Between 800 and 1100, churches were built in the Romanesque style. These churches had round arches and tiny windows set inside thick walls. Beginning in the 1100s, a new style of architecture, Gothic evolved. They were tall cathedrals with large stained- glass windows.
The stained-glass windows illustrated stories from the Bible.
Crusades were carried out by Christian political and religious leaders to take control of the Holy Land from the Muslims. The Crusades Pope Urban II issued a call for a “holy war”, or commonly referred to as a Crusade.
He stated in his speech that Christians needed to regain the Holy Land, Jerusalem. He guaranteed those that fought in the Crusades were assured a place in heaven. The Crusades had two goals: economic and religious motives. Jerusalem was being attacked by the Seljuk Turks, who were Muslims.
First and Second Crusades First Crusade (1097 A.D.)- Crusaders captured Jerusalem. Territory was gained from Edessa to Jerusalem. Four Crusader states were set up. Each ruled by a European noble. Second Crusade (1187 A.D.) - Crusaders lost the Holy City of Jerusalem to the Muslim leader, Saladin.
Third and Fourth Crusades Third Crusade - Once again the Crusaders were defeated by Saladin and his men. Jerusalem remained under Muslim control. Fourth Crusade - Pope Innocent III demanded yet another attack on the Muslims. Instead the Crusaders looted Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire in need of money to support their cause.
The Moors, Muslims, controlled most of Spain until the 1100s. Spanish Crusade Ferdinand and Isabella, Christian Monarchs, headed up a campaign, The Reconquista, to rid Spain of all Muslims. By the late 1490s, the remaining Muslims converted to Christianity or left Spain. Spain is unified under the monarchs.
Effect of the Crusades Weakened the power of the Pope and Nobles, but strengthened the power of the monarchs. Stimulated trade throughout the Mediterranean area and the Middle East.
Left a legacy of bitterness among Christians, Jews, and Muslims. Weakened the Byzantine Empire Economic Effects of the Crusade Increased demand for Middle Eastern products. Stimulated production of goods to trade in Middle Eastern markets.
Trade promoted frequent contacts with the Byzantine and Muslim Empires. Encouraged the use of credit and banking. Church ruled against usury. Usury is the practice of lending money at a high interest rate. Letters of credit served to expand the supply of money and expedite trade.
New accounting and bookkeeping practices by using Arabic numerals. Revival of Learning Muslims were more advance in many more areas than the Europeans. Crusaders brought back Muslim technology in the areas of ships, navigation, weapons, science and medicines, and mathematics.
European Scholars began writing in the vernacular, everyday language, instead of in Latin.
England and France Develop William the Conqueror, leader of the Norman conquest, united most of England. Normandy is a region in the north of France that had been conquered by the Vikings. ENGLAND
William invaded England and crowned himself king of England. Prior to his death nearly 200 Norman's held fiefs in England. England’s King, Henry II, a descendant of William owned land both in England and France. He had two major goals: one, gain more territory from France and two, strengthen his power over the nobles and the church.
Common Law had it beginnings during Henry’s reign. Common Law is English Law that was the same for everyone. King John signed the Magna Carta, which limited the King’s power. The Magna Carta was set up to protect the barons rights as well at the rights to the townspeople and the church.
The Charter contained two basic ideas: FRANCE Hugh Capet established the French throne in Paris, and his dynasty gradually expanded their control over most of France. 1. Nobles and English citizens had basic rights. 2. Monarchs had to obey the law.
Capetians ruled France for nearly 300 years. Phillip II was one of the most powerful Capetians. He was also known as Philip Augustus. Bubonic Plague The plague began in Asia and spread through most of Asia and the Muslim world.
By the mid 1300’s it had reached Europe. It first stop was Sicily and followed the trade routes from Italy, to France, Germany, and finally reached England. The disease became known as the Black Death.
Impact of the Black Death Population declined. A third of the European population was decimated. Labor was hard to come by. People were either dead or to ill to work. Towns were freed from feudal obligations.
The Church’s influence is on the decline. People lost faith when prayers did not help the ill. Many clergy left the area when the plagued infected the towns. Trade is disrupted. People are fearful or not allowed to trade with other towns.
The Hundred Years’ War The war was fought on French soil between England and France. Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl, guided the French to victory. She was captured by the English and burned at the stake. Joan died as a martyr. A martyr is a person who dies for a cause they believe in.
The Hundred Years’ War helped to define France and England as nations. Brought a feeling of nationalism to both countries. Impact of the Hundred Years’ War
England experienced a period of internal turmoil. Two noble houses fought for the throne. The end of the war is considered the end of the Middle Ages.