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The Rise of Nation-States

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Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Nation-States"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Rise of Nation-States
Middle Ages: Europe The Rise of Nation-States

2 Rise of Nation States Background: European monarchies consolidated power and began forming nation-states in the late medieval period. Nation-states are large groups of people who are ruled by one central government, who share a common language and who feel a sense of loyalty to the group.

3 England 1. William the Conqueror – leader of the Norman Conquest
united most of England after the Battle of Hastings 2. Common Law had its beginnings during the reign of Henry II



6 England 3. King John signed the Magna Carta in 1215 which limited the King’s power, gave more power to nobles: **Parliament** 4. The Hundred Years War between England and France helped define England as a nation.



9 France 1. Hugh Capet established the French throne in Paris, and his dynasty gradually expanded their control over most of France. 2. The Hundred Years War between England and France helped define France as a nation.


11 France 3. Joan of Arc was a unifying factor
God told her kick the English out Won at Orleans – huge turning point Captured, condemned as a witch and a heretic Burned at the stake 1431


13 Spain 1. Ferdinand & Isabella unified the country and expelled Muslim Moors during a time called the Reconquista 2. Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere expanded under Phillip II




17 Threw off the rule of the Mongols Centralized power in Moscow
Russia 1. Ivan the Great – Threw off the rule of the Mongols Centralized power in Moscow Expanded the Russian nation


19 Russia 2. Power was centralized in the hands of the tsar. The tsar was the head political figure in Russia who controlled the region. (like a king!) 3. The Orthodox Church influenced unification

20 The Crusades Background: The Crusades were carried out by Christian political & religious leaders to take control of the Holy Land from the Muslims

21 Economic Causes Younger sons looking for land and the ability to increase social status Merchants made $ by making loans and leasing ships Increase trade with Muslim traders

22 Religious Causes Crusaders were guaranteed a place in Heaven
Reclaim Holy Land for Christianity

23 Pope Urban II The pope promised remission of sins: “All who die by the way, whether by land or by sea, or in battle against the pagans, shall have immediate remission of sins. This I grant them through the power of God with which I am invested.” (Council of Clermont- 1095)

24 1st Crusade Recaptured Jerusalem 1099 Established the Crusader states:
Edessa Tripoli Antioch

25 Crusades 2nd: 1147- Edessa was attacked by Muslims
3rd: Saladin retakes Jerusalem King Richard the Lion-Hearted vs. Saladin =truce 4th: Sack of Constantinople



28 Effects of the Crusades
1. Weakened the Pope; strengthened Monarchs 2. Stimulated trade throughout the Mediterranean area and the Middle East 3. Left a legacy of bitterness among Christians, Jews, and Muslims 4. Weakened the Byzantine Empire

29 The Black Death: Background: In the fourteenth century, the Black Death (or Bubonic Plague) destroyed the population of much of Asia and then the population of much of Europe.


31 Symptoms Buboes (Bubonic Plague) of groin, neck , arms oozed and bled
Fever, headaches, nausea, vomiting, etc. 80% died within first week of contracting the disease.


33 Economic and Social impact of the Black Death in much of Asia and Europe
1. Decline in population – 1/3 of Europe died 2. Scarcity of Labor – not enough people to work , farms abandoned 3. Towns freed from feudal obligations – feudalism breaking down Serfs left manors in search of better wages

34 Economic and Social impact of the Black Death in much of Asia and Europe
4. Decline of church influence – prayers failed to stop the plague Priests wouldn’t perform services for those who were dying 5. Disruption of trade – declined as prices rose, less people willing to travel

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