Objectives Students will be able to… 1. Analyze the causes and effects of the Crusades. 2. Summarize the rise of the nation- states of England, France, Germany, and Russia. 3. Describe the troubles in Europe in the Late Middle Ages.
While feudalism was falling apart in Europe, Islam was moving towards the Byzantine Empire.. Control of Jerusalem caused great conflict between Muslims, Jews and Christians.
For Muslims, Jerusalem was the place that Muhammad rose to heaven during his Night Journey. This is where he got the call from Gabriel to be the Messenger of God.
For Jews, Jerusalem was the spiritual capital promised to them in the covenant between Abraham and God. It is also the site of their Great Temple built by Solomon.
For Christians, Jerusalem is holy because it is the place where Jesus was crucified and rose from the dead.
Christians began to worry that they would not be allowed to visit their holy sites. They were also worried that the Muslims would attempt to take over Constantinople.
The First Crusade began when Pope Urban II called for a “holy war” or Crusade, to take back Jerusalem for the Christians. He guaranteed all fighters in this war access to heaven. The Christians won and massacred many Muslims and Jews.
The Second Crusades began with the Muslims and their great leader, Saladin. He led his army back to Jerusalem and took back the sacred city.
With the loss of Jerusalem, Europeans decided they must launch the Third Crusade. This was led by King Richard I of England, also known as Richard the Lionheart. Although he made it to Jerusalem, he ended up in a draw with Saladin and signed a peace treaty.
While the Crusades were happening in the Middle East, the Reconquista was happening in the Iberian Peninsula. This is when Christians tried to retake Spain from the Muslims.
To help get rid of Muslims, Queen Isabella and Ferdinand set up the Spanish Inquisition. The was a harsh court that used torture to test the faith of Muslim or Jewish people who converted to Christianity.
Effects of the Crusades Losers – Church (it was the Pope’s idea) – Feudalism (knights/nobles died) – Religious tolerance Winners – Trade and cultural diffusion
The Black Death Quickly spreads via trade routes Kills over 25 million people in Europe
Effects of the Plague Hurts trade: People fear outsiders and try to lock themselves in non-plagued places Ends the manor system: with fewer workers, serfs can demand more pay Reduces Church influence: powerless to stop the plague Persecution of Jews: blamed as the cause of the plague