Presentation on theme: "1. Define motivation as psychologists use the term today, and name four perspectives useful for studying motivated behavior."— Presentation transcript:
1 1. Define motivation as psychologists use the term today, and name four perspectives useful for studying motivated behavior.
2 Motivation is the energizing and directing of behavior Motivation is the energizing and directing of behavior. The instinct, drive-reduction, arousal, and hierarchy of needs perspectives offer insights into motivated behaviors.
4 Instincts are rigidly patterned, complex behaviors found throughout a species. Early instinct theorists, influenced by Darwin’s theory of natural selection, tried but failed to classify human behaviors as though they were propelled by such instincts. The underlying idea – that genes predispose species – typical behavior – is still influential.
5 3. Explain how drive-reduction theory views human motivation.
6 - physiological needs create aroused psychological states that drive us to reduce or satisfy those needs - internal stability = homeostasis pushed to reduce drive = satisfying hunger pulled by external incentive = smell of cooking food
7 4. Discuss the contribution of arousal theory to the study of motivation.
8 Arousal theory helps explain the motivation for behaviors that do not reduce immediate physiological needs or tension states. Curiosity-driven behaviors, for example, suggest that too little stimulation can motivate people to seek higher level of arousal.
10 - pyramid shaped sequence in which lower-level needs, such as hunger and thirst, are more compelling than higher-level needs, such as the need to love or to be respected -not universal, but, provides framework for thinking about motivated behaviors