3 Motivation Introduction to Motivation Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology Drives and Incentives Optimum Arousal A Hierarchy of Motivations
4 Motivation Motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal. Alan Ralston was motivated to cut his arm to free himself from a rock that pinned him down. Alan Ralston AP Photo/ Rocky Mountain News, Judy Walgren
5 Theories of Motivation Four theories to explain motivation include: 1.Instinct Theory. 2.Drive-Reduction Theory. 3.Arousal Theory. 4.Hierarchy of Motives.
7 Instincts Theory This used to be a big fad in the early 1900s While it is true that humans have some “inborn” behaviors, not all human motivation can be explained by instincts alone. Psychologists most apply this perspective when explaining human similarities, biological predispositions, the influence of evolution on behavior, and our romantic attractions.
8 Drive-Reduction Theory When the instinct theory of motivation failed it was replaced by drive-reduction theory. Physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need (Hull, 1951).
9 Drive Reduction Food Drive Reduction Organism Physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis – maintenance of steady internal state, e.g., maintenance of steady body temperature. Stomach Full Empty Stomach (Food Deprived)
10 Incentive Where our needs push, incentives (positive or negative stimuli) pull us in reducing our drives. A food-deprived person who smells baking bread (incentive) feels strong hunger drive.
11 Optimum Arousal Human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but to seek optimum levels of arousal. Young monkeys and children are known to explore environment in the absence of a need- based drive. Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin Randy Faris/ Corbis
12 Optimum Arousal… a second look This theory explains why we are not just happy to sit around and eat and drink all day. It is because we are always seeking optimum arousal. Once our basic needs are fulfilled, we will explore our environments or learn new things. This is why we get bored when we sit around doing nothing.
13 Hierarch of Needs Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested some needs have priority over others. Physiological needs like breathing, thirst and hunger come before psychological needs like achievement, self-esteem and need for recognition. (1908-1970)
14 Hierarch of Needs Hurricane Survivors Menahem Kahana/ AFP/ Getty Images Mario Tama/ Getty Images David Portnoy/ Getty Images for Stern Joe Skipper/ Reuters/ Corbis
15 Hierarch of Needs Maslow’s theory suggests that we must deal with our basic needs first. We cannot worry about our self-esteem or life goals if we are starving or homeless. Basic needs must be met FIRST!