Sources of Motivation Biological Factors –Need for food, water, sex, temp. regulation Emotional Factors –Panic, fear, anger, love, hatred Cognitive Factors –Perceptions, beliefs, expectations… Social Factors –Reactions from others ie: parents, family, co- workers, peers, friends…
Main Theories of Motivation Instinct Theory Drive Reduction Theory Arousal Theory Incentive Theory Cognitive Theory Hierarchy of Motives (Maslow)
Instinct Theory Explains some animal behaviors Explains some human behaviors Does not explain other human behaviors
Instinct Theory Instinct = Automatic, unlearned, involuntary behavior triggered by a specific stimulus. “Instincts” became meaningless labels. – Described behavior without explaining it. At least some aspects of human motivation seem innate - instinctual. –Evolutionary approach Sucking Smiling and other facial expressions Mate selection – what makes you attracted to someone who you might have kids with?
Drive-Reduction Theory The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. The need is usually to maintain homeostasis. –Tendency to keep physiological systems in equilibrium… –Glucose levels, leptin, regulation of set point in weight –not too cold, not to hot –not too wet, not too dry.
Drive-Reduction Theory We are not only pushed by our needs but. … Pulled by our incentives: a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
BUT… why do we ride rollercoasters, gangbang, and bungee jump?
Optimum Arousal Theory Motivation is tied to regulation of arousal. Performance is best when arousal is moderate. Organisms are motivated to behave in ways that maintain their optimal level of arousal.
Incentive Theory Behavior is directed toward attaining desirable stimuli and avoiding unwanted stimuli. Emphasizes the role of environmental stimuli that motivate behavior Two Incentive-Related Systems: –Wanting – being attracted to a stimulus. –Liking – Evaluating how pleasurable a stimulus is.
Cognitive Theories Extrinsic motivation –involves engaging in certain activities or behaviors that either reduce biological needs or help us obtain incentives or external rewards Intrinsic motivation –involves engaging in certain activities or behaviors because the behaviors themselves are personally rewarding or because engaging in these activities fulfills our beliefs or expectations
Extrinsic Motivation A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.
Intrinsic Motivation A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
Hierarchy of Motives Biological needs –physiological requirements that are critical to our survival and physical well-being Social needs –needs that are acquired through learning and experience Satisfying needs –Maslow’s hierarchy of needs –ascending order, or hierarchy, in which biological needs are placed at the bottom and social needs at the top