Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 10 Motivation Modified from: James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers.
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Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 10 Motivation Modified from: James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
Motivation Need or desire that energizes & directs behavior 4 Motives – hunger, sex, belonging & achievement motivation 4 perspectives Instinct theory Drive-reduction theory Arousal theory Hierarchy of needs
Motivational Concepts Instinct (Instinct Theory) Complex behavior rigidly patterned throughout a species; unlearned Drive-Reduction Theory Physiological need creates aroused tension state (drive) that motivates organism to satisfy need Drive-reducing behaviors (eating, drinking) Need (e.g., for food, water) Drive (hunger, thirst)
Drives & Incentives Homeostasis Tendency to maintain balanced or constant internal state Regulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a particular level Incentive Positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Begins at base with physiological needs that must be satisfied 1st Then higher-level safety needs activated Then psychological needs activated Self-actualization needs Need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential Esteem needs Need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others Safety needs Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable Belongingness and love needs Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation Physiological needs Need to satisfy hunger and thirst