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Key Terms William the Conqueror Henry I Common law Magna Carta

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Presentation on theme: "Key Terms William the Conqueror Henry I Common law Magna Carta"— Presentation transcript:

1 Key Terms William the Conqueror Henry I Common law Magna Carta
Parliament Hugh Capet Phillip II Estates-General


3 England Absorbs Waves of Invaders
800’s Britain was attacked and invaded by the Vikings Special prayer was created for protection“God, deliver us from the fury of the Northmen” Alfred the Great turns the Vikings back He unites England under one rule Calls England the land of Angels

4 England Absorbs Wave of Invaders
1016 Danish King Canute conquered England He Molded Anglo Saxons into Viking people 1042 King Edward the Confessor took the throne 1066 died without an heir, causing a struggle for the Thrown

5 Norman Conquest William Duke of Normandy (William the Conqueror)
Norman- descendant of Vikings spoke French Invaded England and claimed the crown Fought and won the Battle of Hastings

6 Norman Conquest Harold Godwinson was rival to William
Battled each other in The Battle of Hastings 1066 Harold was shot in eye by an arrow William claimed England and kept1/5 of England for himself Lords who supported him received land grants Unified the country, and laid foundation for centralized Government in England

7 England’s Evolving Government
English wanted two goals Hold and add to French lands Strengthen own power over church and nobles William’s ancestors owned land in France and England Henry II added to land by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine (French)

8 England’s Evolving Government
The marriage gave Henry a large territory in France He Inherited William the Conquerors land Also a vassal to a French King

9 Juries and Common Law Henry strengthened royal court by sending Royal judges to all of England at least once a year The Royal Judges Collected taxes, settled lawsuits, punished crimes He also introduced the Jury to English Courts Jury-usually 12 neighbors of the accused

10 Juries and Common Law Juries would answer questions about the case
Trial- popular means to settle a dispute Only king’s court could conduct them Common law-case by case rulings formed unified body of law

11 Magna Carta Henry dies Richard the Lionhearted takes over, but dies in the Crusades John (Richards younger brother) became king Not a good military leader Lost lands in France Cruel to his subjects Highest taxes Threatened to revoke charters

12 Magna Carta Nobles revolt in 1215
John forced to sign Magna Carta (Great Charter) Drawn up by nobles Certain political rights Safeguarded feudal rights Limit the king’s power

13 Magna Carta Citizens argued it applied to all classes
No taxation without representation Jury trial Protection of the law Basic legal rights now in England and the United States

14 Model Parliament Edward I needed to raise taxes for a war with France
Two burgesses from every borough, two knights from every county, to serve on Parliament Similar to Senate and House of Representatives today Parliament: Legislative body of lords and commoners

15 The Model Parliament 1300-1400 Parliament when King wanted a new tax
Two groups formed House of Commons House of Lords Parliament helped to weaken the great lords In time Parliament became strong and provided a check on Royal Power

16 Capetian Dynasty Rules France
After Charlemagne’s empire broke up, Counts and dukes ruled land independently France had 47 feudal territories Hugh Capet-began the Capetian Dynasty that ruled from

17 France Becomes a Separate Kingdom
Power of King spread from Paris Royal power would unite France

18 Philip II Expands Power
One of the most powerful Capetians was Philip II Philip II Watched father lose land to Henry II Became king at 15 Phillip had little success against Henry II or Richard the Lionhearted John becomes king

19 Philip II Expands His Power
Phillip gets the name Augustus Greatly increase France’s territory (3 X larger) Seized Normandy from King John in 1204 Phillip had tripled his lands

20 Phillip II Expands His Power
French King more powerful than any other vassal Wanted more land and wanted stronger central government Bailiffs- royal officials who presided over the king’s court and collected taxes

21 Phillip II’s Heirs Louis IX Phillip’s grandson
During Reign, central government became stronger Known as ideal king Became a Saint in Catholic Church Created French Appeals Court which Could overturn local courts (Federal Court System)

22 Phillip II’s Heirs Phillip IV ruled from 1285-1314
Had quarrels with the pope Philip Wanted priests to pay taxes in the Kingdom Disputed right of pope to control church affairs in his kingdom

23 Phillip II’s Heirs Usually called lords and bishops for support when he wanted something to be passed in his Kingdom To win support against the pope called a meeting included commoners

24 Estates General Church leaders were know as the First Estate
Great lords- Second Estate Commoners, wealthy landholders, merchants became the Third Estate The whole meeting was called the Estates General

25 Estates General Estates General Increased royal power against nobility
Estates General never became independent Third Estate would play a key role in the French Revolution

26 Beginnings of Democracy
England and France both started the Democratic Process Central government Govern widespread lands Creation of common law courts was the first step Including commoners in decision making was essential for Democracy Start of democratic rule


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